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Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. In dustrial automati on technology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate subject . Ma nipulator appli cation bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni ence to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the devel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farmland, repeated operations on the high -s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understand has some usually didn't opport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yihou of design i n the can s uc ces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipulator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut omation te chnol ogy of devel opme nt, Makes me cha nical arm on the Grand stage of industrial aut omation a nd s hine, gradually be came an i ndustrial evaluati on sta ndar ds, a nd its im portance can be see n. Now origi nal roboti c arm spe nt most of mass producti on a nd use on the production line, whi ch is programmed roboti c arm. As the first generation of manipulator position control s ystems main features, althoug h not back several generati ons t hat ca n dete ct the external e nvironment, but ca n still successf ully com plete like wel ding, painti ng, del ivery as well as for materials simple moveme nts. Se cond generation me cha nical arms are equipped wit h sensors a nd ma nipulators hav e the envir onme nt there is a certain amount of "sense", w hen the mechani cal arm is to use the program as a ba sis . Difference is that t he robot bega nd

一、快捷键 1、对象特性 快捷键 ADC MA COL LT LW ATT BO EXIT IMP PRINT RE SN OS TO AA LI 快捷键 PO XL ML POL C DO REG T I DIV D H S W U P DT 快捷键 CO 说明 *ADCENTER(设计中心“Ctrl+2” *MATCHPROP(特性匹配 *COLOR(设置颜色 *LINETYPE(线形 *LWEIGHT (线宽 *ATTDEF(属性定义 快捷键 ST LA LTS UN ATE 说明 *STYLE(文字样式) <BR< p> *LAYER(图层操作 *LTSCALE(线形比例 *UNITS(图形单位 *ATTEDIT(编辑属性 *ALIGN(对齐) *EXPORT(输出其它格式档) *OPTIONS(自定义 CAD 设置) *PURGE(清除垃圾) *RENAME(重命名) *DSETTINGS(设置极轴追踪) *PREVIEW(打印预览) *VIEW(命名视图) *DIST(距离) CH , MO *PROPERTIES(修改特性“Ctrl+1”)

*BOUNDARY(边界创建,包括创建 AL 闭合多段线和面域) *QUIT(退出) *IMPORT(输入档) *PLOT(打印) *REDRAW(重新生成) *SNAP(捕捉栅格) *OSNAP(设置捕捉模式) *TOOLBAR(工具栏 *AREA(面积) *LIST(显示图形数据信息) 说明 *POINT(点) *XLINE(射线) *MLINE(并行线) *POLYGON(正多边形) *CIRCLE(圆) *DONUT(圆环) *REGION(面域) *MTEXT(多行文本) *INSERT(插入块) *DIVIDE(等分) 尺寸资源管理器 填充 u 拉伸 定义块并保存到硬盘中 恢复上一次操做 移动 TEXT 单行文字 说明 *COPY(复制) 快捷键 L PL SPL REC A EL MT B W H G I T V O T MT DR 快捷键 MI EXP OP ,PR PU REN DS PRE V DI

2、绘图命令: 说明 *LINE(直线) *PLINE(多段线) *SPLINE(样条曲线) *RECTANGLE(矩形) *ARC(圆弧) *ELLIPSE(椭圆) *MTEXT(多行文本) *BLOCK(块定义) *WBLOCK(定义块档) *BHATCH(填充) 对相组合 插入 文本输入 设置当前坐标 偏移 多行文字 DRAWORDER 改变显示顺序(上/下) 说明 *MIRROR(镜像)

3、修改命令:

m anipulat or control m ode a nd programmabl e controller s introduction 2.1 S elect dis cus sion with ma nipulator contr ol 2.1 .1 cl assificati on of control relays and dis crete ele ctronic circuit can control old i ndustrial e qui pment, but als o more common. Ma inly these tw o relatively chea p and you ca n meet the ol d-fas hioned, simple (or simple) i ndustrial equipme nt. So he can see them now, however t hese tw o contr ol mode s (relay and dis crete ele ctronic circuits) are thes e fatal flaws: (1) cannot a dapt to t he complex l ogic control, (2) only for t he current proj ect, t he lack of com patibi lity and (3) not reforming the sy stem with e qui pment impr ovements. S pring for t he development of China's modern i ndustrial a utomation technology the s ubsta ntial increase i n the level of industrial aut omation, com pleted t he perfect relay of the com puter too much. In terms of controlling t he computer s howed his tw o great advantage s: (1) eac h of the hardw are ca n be installe d on one or more micr oproces sors ; (2) the 。 转 好 定 稳 势 形 产 生 安 域 领 行 个 动 推 降 下 继 量 总 保 故 事 上 以 较 制 遏 , 管 监 节 环 等 作 殊 特 和 区 地 ”、 大 一 点 重 “两 化 强 续 持 ; 任 责 体 主 业 企 实 落 面 全 official desig ner of the software writing content control is all a bout . Now in s everal ways in t he context of industrial a utomation ca n often be se en i n three ways : (1) Programmable Logica l Controller (referred to as IPC); (2) Distri bute d Control System (DCS for short), and (3) the Programmable Logi cal Controll er (PLC for s hort). 2. 1.2 PLC a nd t he IPC and DCS contrast contrast 1, ea ch of the three technologi es of origi ns a nd developm ent requirement s for fast data process ing makes it inve nted the com puter. The me n brought i n terms of hardware there, usi ng a hig h level of standardi zation, ca n use m ore compatibility tool s, is a ri ch s oftware resources , especially t he ne ed for immedia cy in operational systems . So the com puter can effectively control i s used to control and meet its s pee d, on the virtua l model , real-time a nd i n computational re quireme nts. Distri bute d system started wit h a contr ol system for industrial a utomatic i nstrume nt use d to contr ol, whereas now it is succes sfully deve loped int o industrial control computer use d as a central colle ction a nd distri bution system and transiti on of distributed contr ol system in a nalog ue ha ndli ng, l oop control, has beg un t o reflect the use of a huge adva ntage. Thoug h distri bute d system has great adva ntages in l oop regulati on, but only as a means of conti nuous process contr ol. Optimization of PLC is the corre sponding relay nee ds wa s bor n, its main use i n the w ork order control, early primary is repla ced relay this hulking system, focus ed on the s witch controlli ng the runni ng order of functi ons. Marked by the micr oproces sor i n the early 197 0 of the 20th cent ury emerged, micr o-el ectronics technol ogy ha s devel ope d rapi dly, people s oon microel ectronics proces sing technology w ill be used i n the Programmable Logi cal Controller (that is

Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. Industrial automati on techn ology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate su bject . Ma nipulator appli cation bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni ence to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the devel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farm land, repeated operations on the high -s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understan d has some usually didn't opport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yihou of design i n the can s ucces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipul ator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut omation te chnol ogy of devel opme nt, Makes me cha nical arm on the Grand stage of ind ustrial aut omation a nd s hine, gradually be came an i ndustrial evaluati on sta ndar ds, a nd its im portance can be see n. Now origi nal roboti c arm spe nt most of mass producti on a nd use on the production line, whi ch is programmed roboti c arm. As the first generation of manipulat or position control s ystems main features, althoug h not back several generati ons t hat ca n dete ct the external e nvironment, but ca n still successf ully com plete like wel ding, painti ng, del ivery as well as for materials simple moveme nts. Se cond generation me cha nical arms are equipped wit h sensors a nd ma nipulators hav e the envir onme nt there is a certain amount of "sense", w hen the mechani cal arm is to use the program as a ba sis . Difference is that t he robot bega nd

AR RO E TR S SC CHA PE 快捷键 P Z ZP 快捷键 DLI DRA DAN DOR LE DCO DED LI 快捷键

*ARRAY(数组) *ROTATE(旋转) DEL 键 *ERASE(删除) *TRIM(修剪) *STRETCH(拉伸) *SCALE(比例缩放) *CHAMFER(倒角) *PEDIT(多段线编辑) 说明 *PAN(*移) *局部放大 *返回上一视图 说明 *DIMLINEAR(直线标注) *DIMRADIUS(半径标注) *DIMANGULAR(角度标注) *DIMORDINATE(点标注) *QLEADER(快速引出标注) *DIMCONTINUE(连续标注) *DIMEDIT(编辑标注) 样条曲线标注 说明

O M X EX LEN BR F ED 快捷键

*OFFSET(偏移) *MOVE(移动) *EXPLODE(分解) *EXTEND(延伸) *LENGTHEN(直线拉长) *BREAK(打断) *FILLET(倒圆角) *DDEDIT(修改文本) 说明 *实时缩放 *显示全图 *显示全图 说明 *DIMALIGNED(对齐标注) *DIMDIAMETER(直径标注) *DIMCENTER(中心标注) *TOLERANCE(标注形位公差) *DIMBASELINE(基线标注) *DIMSTYLE(标注样式) *DIMOVERRIDE(替换标注系统变量)

4、窗口缩放: Z+空格+空格 ZX ZE 快捷键 DAL DDI DCE TOL DBA D DOV

5、尺寸标注:

6.常用 CTRL 快捷键 快捷键 说明 【CTRL】+1 打开/关闭特性对话框 【CTRL】+3 打开/关闭所有选项板 【CTRL】+7 打开/关闭标记集选项板 【CTRL】+9 显示/隐藏命令行窗口 【CTRL】+A 选择图形中的对象 【CTRL】+C 复制 【CTRL】+E 等轴测*面上、下、左、右 【CTRL】+G 栅格显示模式控制(F7) 【CTRL】+K 超级连结 【CTRL】+M 打开选项对话框: 【CTRL】+O 打开图像文件 【CTRL】+R 在布局视口之间循环 【CTRL】+U 极轴模式控制(F10) 【CTRL】 +W 对象追 踪式控制(F11) 【CTRL】+Y 重做 【CTRL】+[ 取消当前命令 【CTRL】+2 打开/关闭图像资源管理器 【CTRL】+4 打开/关闭图纸集管理器 【CTRL】+8 打开/关闭快速计算器 【CTRL】+0 全屏/窗口 【CTRL】+B 栅格捕捉模式控制(F9) 【CTRL】+D 动态 UCS 开/关 【CTRL】+F 控制是否实现对象自动捕捉(f3) 【CTRL】+J 重复执行上一步命令 【CTRL】+L 正交 【CTRL】+N 新建图形文件 【CTRL】+P 打开打印对说框 【CTRL】+S 保存檔 【CTRL】+v 粘贴剪贴板上的内容 【CTRL】+X 剪切所选择的内容 【CTRL】+Z 取消前一步的操作 【CTRL】+\ 取消当前命令

【CTRL】+5 打开/关闭信息选项板(快速帮助) 【CTRL】+6 打开/关闭图像数据原子

m anipulat or control m ode a nd programmabl e controller s introduction 2.1 S elect dis cus sion with ma nipulator contr ol 2.1 .1 cl assificati on of control relays and dis crete ele ctronic circuit can control old i ndustrial e qui pment, but als o more common. Ma inl y these tw o relatively chea p and you ca n meet the ol d-fas hioned, simple (or simple) i ndustrial equipme nt. So he can see them now, however t hese tw o contr ol mode s (relay and dis crete ele ctronic circuits) are thes e fatal flaws: (1) cannot a dapt to t he complex l ogic control, (2) only for the current proj ect, t he lack of com patibi lity and (3) not reforming the sy stem with e qui pment impr ovements. S pring for t he development of China's modern i ndustrial a utomation technology the s ubsta ntial increase i n the level of industrial aut omation, com pleted t he perfect relay of the com puter too much. In terms of controlling t he computer s howed his t w o great advantage s: (1) each of the hardw are ca n be installe d on one or more micr oproces sors ; (2) the 。 转 好 定 稳 势 形 产 生 安 域 领 行 个 动 推 降 下 继 量 总 保 故 事 上 以 较 制 遏 , 管 监 节 环 等 作 殊 特 和 区 地 ”、 大 一 点 重 “两 化 强 续 持 ; 任 责 体 主 业 企 实 落 面 全 official desig ner of the software writing content control is all a bout . Now in s everal ways in t he context of industrial a utomation ca n often be se en i n three ways : (1) Programmable Logica l Controller (referred to as IPC); (2) Distri bute d Control System (DCS for short), and (3) the Programmable Logi cal Controller (PLC for s hort). 2. 1.2 PLC a nd t he IPC and DCS contrast contrast 1, ea ch of the three technologi es of origi ns a nd development requirement s for fast data process ing makes it inve nted the com puter. The me n brought i n term s of hardware there, usi ng a hig h level of standardi zation, ca n use m ore compatibility tool s, is a ri ch s oftware resources , especia lly t he ne ed for immedia cy in operational systems . So the com puter can effectively control i s used to control and meet its s pee d, on the virtua l model , real-time a nd i n computational re quireme nts. Distri bute d system started wit h a contr ol system for industrial a utomatic i nstrume nt use d to contr ol, whereas now it is succes sfully deve loped int o industrial control computer use d as a central colle ction a nd distri bution system and transiti on of distributed contr ol system in a nalog ue ha ndli ng, l oop control, has beg un t o reflect the use of a huge adva ntage. Thoug h distri bute d system has great adva ntages in l oop regulati on, but only as a means of conti nuous process contr ol. Optimization of PLC is the corre sponding relay nee ds wa s bor n, its main use i n the w ork order control, early primary is repla ced relay this hulking system, focus ed on the s witch controlli ng the runni ng order of functi on s. Marked by the micr oproces sor i n the early 197 0 of the 20th cent ury emerged, micr o-el ectronics technol ogy ha s devel ope d rapi dly, people s oon microel ectronics proces sing technology w ill be used i n the Programm able Logi cal Controller (that is

Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. Industrial automati on technology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate subject . Ma nipulator appli cat ion bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni en ce to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the de vel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farmland, repeated operations on the high-s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understand has some usually didn't o pport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yi hou of design i n the can s ucces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipulator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut omation te chnol ogy of devel opme nt, Makes me cha nical arm on the Grand stage of ind ustrial aut omation a nd s hine, gradually be came an i ndustrial evaluati on sta ndar ds, a nd its im portance can be see n. Now origi nal roboti c arm spe nt most of mass producti on a nd use on the production line, whi ch is programmed roboti c arm. As the first generation of manipulator position control s ystems main features, althoug h not back several generati ons t hat ca n dete ct the external e nvironment, but ca n still successf ully com plete like wel ding, painti ng, del ivery as well as for materials simple moveme nts. Se cond generation me cha nical arms are equipped wit h sensors a nd ma nipulators hav e the envir onme nt there is a certain amount of "sense", w hen the mechani cal arm is to use the progr am as a ba sis . Difference is that t he robot bega nd

7.常用功能键 快捷键 【F1】 【F3】 【F5】 【F7】 【F9】 【F11】 8.其他 符号 3A 3F 3Do Adc -Ch Dbc Dimted Di Bo Dv F G, -G Id Iad Icl Ls Lw Mt, T Mv Pe Rea Ucs Rpr Sec Sh Sl So Spe Su Xc We Box 说明 三维数组 绘制三维曲面 三维动态旋转 启动 AutoCAD 设计中心 修改属性 启动数据库连接管理 编辑尺寸文本 测量两点之间的距离 定义边界 视点动态设置 控制实体的填充状态 创建一个指定名称的选择组 显示点的坐标 调整所选图像的边框大小 列表显示实体信息 设置线宽 多行文本标注 创建多窗口 编辑多义线及三维多边形网格 重生成所有图形 定义用户坐标 设置渲染参数 生成剖面 切换到 DOS 环境下 将三维实体切开 绘制实心多边形 编辑样条曲线 布尔求差 设置图块或处理引用边界 绘制楔形体 绘制长方体 符号 Al AA Ddattdef Ate Ddattext Dor Ded Div Ds, Se Ext Fi He Fillet Inf Lts Me Os, -Os Pu Qdim Rev Rev Rotate3D Set To Uni Tor In -V Vlide W -Un 说明 图形对齐 计算所选区域的周长和面积 创建属性定义 编辑图形属性值 摘录属性定义数据 临时覆盖系统尺寸变量设置 编辑尺寸标注 等分实体 置选项功能 将二维图形拉伸成三维实体 过滤选择实体 编辑区域填充图样 倒园角 附贴一个图像至当前图形文件 将 3D 实体的相交部分创建为一个实体 设置线型比例系数 定长等分实体 设置目标捕捉方式及框大小 清除图形中无用的对象 尺寸快速标注 Qdim 重生成当前图形 将二维图形旋转成三维实体 三维旋转 设置 AutoCAD 系统变量 坫减工具栏 布尔求和 创建园环实体 布尔求交 窗口管理 打开 VisuaiLisp 集成开发环境 图块存档 定义 AutoCAD 文本窗口 说明 获取帮助 控制是否实现对象自动捕捉 等轴测*面切换 栅格显示模式控制 栅格捕捉模式控制 对象追踪式控制 快捷键 【F2】 【F4】 【F6】 【F8】 【F10】 【F12】 说明 实现作图窗和文本窗口的切换 数字化仪控制 控制状态行上坐标的显示方式 正交模式控制 极轴模式控制 动态输入控制

调整图像的亮度、对比度和灰度 Iat

m anipulat or control m ode a nd programmabl e controller s introduction 2.1 S elect dis cus sion with ma nipulator contr ol 2.1 .1 cl assificati on of control relays and dis crete ele ctronic circuit can co ntrol old i ndustrial e qui pment, but als o more common. Ma inly these tw o relatively chea p and you ca n meet the ol d-fas hioned, simple (or simple) i ndustrial equipme nt. So he can see them now, however t hese tw o contr ol mode s (relay and dis crete ele ctronic circuits) are thes e fatal flaws: (1) cannot a dapt to t he complex l ogic control, (2) only for the current proj ect, t he lack of com patibi lity and (3) not reforming the sy stem with e qui pment impr ovements. S pring for t he development of China's modern i ndustrial a utomation technology the s ubsta ntial increase i n the level of industrial aut omation, com pleted t he perfect relay of the com put er too much. In terms of controlling t he computer s howed his tw o great advantage s: (1) each of the hardw are ca n be installe d on one or more micr oproces sors ; (2) the 。 转 好 定 稳 势 形 产 生 安 域 领 行 个 动 推 降 下 继 量 总 保 故 事 上 以 较 制 遏 , 管 监 节 环 等 作 殊 特 和 区 地 ”、 大 一 点 重 “两 化 强 续 持 ; 任 责 体 主 业 企 实 落 面 全 official desig ner of the software writing content control is all a bout . Now in s everal ways in t he context of industrial a utomation ca n often be se en i n three ways : (1) Programmable Logica l Controller (referred to as IPC); (2) Distri bute d Control System (DCS for short), and (3) the Programmable Logi cal Controller (PLC for s hort). 2. 1.2 PLC a nd t he IPC and DCS contrast contrast 1, ea ch of the three technologi es of origi ns a nd development requirement s for fast data process ing makes it inve nted the com puter. The me n brought i n terms of hardware there, usi ng a hig h level of standardi zation, ca n use m ore compatibility tool s, is a ri ch s oftware resources , especially t he ne ed for immedia cy in operational systems . So the com put er can effectively control i s used to control and meet its s pee d, on the virtua l model , real-time a nd i n computational re quireme nts. Distri bute d system started wit h a contr ol system for industrial a utomatic i nstrume nt use d to contr ol, whereas now it is succes sfully deve loped int o industrial control computer use d as a central colle ction a nd distri bution system and transiti on of distributed contr ol system in a nalog ue ha ndli ng, l oop control, has beg un t o reflect the use of a huge adva ntage. Thoug h distri bute d system has great adva ntages in l oop regulati on, but only as a means of conti nuous process contr ol. Optimization of PLC is the corr e sponding relay nee ds wa s bor n, its main use i n the w ork order control, early primary is repla ced relay this hulking system, focus ed on the s witch controlli ng the runni ng order of functi ons. Marked by the micr oproces sor i n the early 197 0 of the 20th cent ur y emerged, micr o-el ectronics technol ogy ha s devel ope d rapi dly, people s oon microel ectronics proces sing technology w ill be used i n the Programmable Logi cal Controller (that is

Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. Industrial automati on techn ology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate su bject . Ma nipulator appli cation bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni ence to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the devel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farm land, repeated operations on the high -s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understan d has some usually didn't opport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yihou of design i n the can s ucces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipul ator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut omation te chnol ogy of devel opme nt, Makes me cha nical arm on the Grand stage of ind ustrial aut omation a nd s hine, gradually be came an i ndustrial evaluati on sta ndar ds, a nd its im portance can be see n. Now origi nal roboti c arm spe nt most of mass producti on a nd use on the production line, whi ch is programmed roboti c arm. As the first generation of manipulat or position control s ystems main features, althoug h not back several generati ons t hat ca n dete ct the external e nvironment, but ca n still successf ully com plete like wel ding, painti ng, del ivery as well as for materials simple moveme nts. Se cond generation me cha nical arms are equipped wit h sensors a nd ma nipulators hav e the envir onme nt there is a certain amount of "sense", w hen the mechani cal arm is to use the program as a ba sis . Difference is that t he robot bega nd

Sphere Cylinder Eillptical Cone %%%

绘制实体球 绘制园柱体 绘制椭圆柱体(先绘椭圆) 绘制园锥或椭圆锥体 标注百分号

%%O %%U %%P %%C %%D

打开或关闭文字上划线 打开或关闭文字底线 标注正负号(± ) 标注直径(ф) 标注符号度(° )

二、CAD 制图规范 (一) 、基本要求 1.所有设计室出的图纸都要配备图纸封皮、图纸说明、图纸目录。 A.图纸封皮须注明工程名称、图纸类别(施工图、竣工图、方案图) 、制图日期。 B.图纸说明须对工程进一步说明工程概况、工程名称、建设单位、施工单位、设计单位或 建筑设计单位等。 2.每张图纸须编制图名、图号、比例、时间。 3.打印图纸按需要,比例出图。 (二) 、常用制图方式 一、常用比例 1:1 1:2 1:3 1:4 1:5 1:6 1:10 1:15 1:20 1:25 1:30 1:40 1:50 1:60 1:80 1:100 1:150 1:200 1:250 1:300 1:400 1:500 二、线型 1.粗实线:0.3mm (1).*、剖面图中被剖切的主要建筑构造的轮廓(建筑*面图) (2).室内外立面图的轮廓。 (3).建筑装饰构造详图的建筑物表面线。 2.中实线:0.15-0.18mm (1).*、剖面图中被剖切的次要建筑构造的轮廓线。 (2).室内外*顶、立、剖面图中建筑构配件的轮廓线。 (3) .建筑装饰构造详图及构配件详图中一般轮廓线。 3.细实线:0.1mm (1).填充线、尺寸线、尺寸界限、索引符号、标高符号、分网格线。 4.细虚线:0.1-0.13mm (1).室内*面、顶面图中未剖切到的主要轮廓线。 (2).建筑构造及建筑装饰构配件不可见的轮廓线。 (3).拟扩建的建筑轮廓线。 (4).外开门立面图开门表示方式。 5.细点划线:0.1-0.13mm 1.中心线、对称线、定位轴线。 6.细折断线:0.1-0.13mm 1.不需画全的断开界线。 三、打印出图笔号 1-10 号线宽设置 1号 2号 3号 4号 5号 6号 7号 红色 黄色 绿色 浅兰色 深兰色 紫色 白色 0.1mm 0.1-0.13mm 0.1-0.13mm 0.15-0.18mm 0.3-0.4mm 0.1-0.13mm 0.1-0.13mm

m anipulat or control m ode a nd programmabl e controller s introduction 2.1 S elect dis cus sion with ma nipulator contr ol 2.1 .1 cl assificati on of control relays and dis crete ele ctronic circuit can control old i ndustrial e qui pment, but als o more common. Ma inl y these tw o relatively chea p and you ca n meet the ol d-fas hioned, simple (or simple) i ndustrial equipme nt. So he can see them now, however t hese tw o contr ol mode s (relay and dis crete ele ctronic circuits) are thes e fatal flaws: (1) cannot a dapt to t he complex l ogic control, (2) only for the current proj ect, t he lack of com patibi lity and (3) not reforming the sy stem with e qui pment impr ovements. S pring for t he development of China's modern i ndustrial a utomation technology the s ubsta ntial increase i n the level of industrial aut omation, com pleted t he perfect relay of the com puter too much. In terms of controlling t he computer s howed his t w o great advantage s: (1) each of the hardw are ca n be installe d on one or more micr oproces sors ; (2) the 。 转 好 定 稳 势 形 产 生 安 域 领 行 个 动 推 降 下 继 量 总 保 故 事 上 以 较 制 遏 , 管 监 节 环 等 作 殊 特 和 区 地 ”、 大 一 点 重 “两 化 强 续 持 ; 任 责 体 主 业 企 实 落 面 全 official desig ner of the software writing content control is all a bout . Now in s everal ways in t he context of industrial a utomation ca n often be se en i n three ways : (1) Programmable Logica l Controller (referred to as IPC); (2) Distri bute d Control System (DCS for short), and (3) the Programmable Logi cal Controller (PLC for s hort). 2. 1.2 PLC a nd t he IPC and DCS contrast contrast 1, ea ch of the three technologi es of origi ns a nd development requirement s for fast data process ing makes it inve nted the com puter. The me n brought i n term s of hardware there, usi ng a hig h level of standardi zation, ca n use m ore compatibility tool s, is a ri ch s oftware resources , especia lly t he ne ed for immedia cy in operational systems . So the com puter can effectively control i s used to control and meet its s pee d, on the virtua l model , real-time a nd i n computational re quireme nts. Distri bute d system started wit h a contr ol system for industrial a utomatic i nstrume nt use d to contr ol, whereas now it is succes sfully deve loped int o industrial control computer use d as a central colle ction a nd distri bution system and transiti on of distributed contr ol system in a nalog ue ha ndli ng, l oop control, has beg un t o reflect the use of a huge adva ntage. Thoug h distri bute d system has great adva ntages in l oop regulati on, but only as a means of conti nuous process contr ol. Optimization of PLC is the corre sponding relay nee ds wa s bor n, its main use i n the w ork order control, early primary is repla ced relay this hulking system, focus ed on the s witch controlli ng the runni ng order of functi on s. Marked by the micr oproces sor i n the early 197 0 of the 20th cent ury emerged, micr o-el ectronics technol ogy ha s devel ope d rapi dly, people s oon microel ectronics proces sing technology w ill be used i n the Programm able Logi cal Controller (that is

Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. Industrial automati on technology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate subject . Ma nipulator appli cat ion bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni en ce to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the de vel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farmland, repeated operations on the high-s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understand has some usually didn't o pport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yi hou of design i n the can s ucces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipulator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut omation te chnol ogy of devel opme nt, Makes me cha nical arm on the Grand stage of ind ustrial aut omation a nd s hine, gradually be came an i ndustrial evaluati on sta ndar ds, a nd its im portance can be see n. Now origi nal roboti c arm spe nt most of mass producti on a nd use on the production line, whi ch is programmed roboti c arm. As the first generation of manipulator position control s ystems main features, althoug h not back several generati ons t hat ca n dete ct the external e nvironment, but ca n still successf ully com plete like wel ding, painti ng, del ivery as well as for materials simple moveme nts. Se cond generation me cha nical arms are equipped wit h sensors a nd ma nipulators hav e the envir onme nt there is a certain amount of "sense", w hen the mechani cal arm is to use the progr am as a ba sis . Difference is that t he robot bega nd

8.9 号 10 号 10 号特粗线

灰色 红色

0.05-0.1mm 0.6-1mm

1.立面*合 2.索引剖切符号 3.图示上线 4.索引图标中表示索 引图在本图的短线

(三) 、剖切索引符号 1. m: ?12mm(在 A0、A1、A2、图纸) 2. m: ?10mm(在 A3、A4 图纸) 3. 特粗线到索引线为剖视方向 4. A: 字高 5mm(在 A0、A1、A2、图纸)字高 4mm(在 A3、A4 图纸) 5. B-01:字高 3mm(在 A0、A1、A2、图纸)字高 2.5mm(在 A3、A4 图纸) 6. A 为索引图号,B-01 为索引图纸号,B-01 为“ ”表示索引在本图 标注 B: 2.50 0.8 附注:1.所用图形比例均为 1:100 2.为了减少图纸的内存和确保图框文件的标准性、建议使用外部引用命令引用图框文件。 方法:XREF(外部引用) ATTACH(加入),选择所需引用的图框文件选点。 10、绘图文件的命名规则 CAD 档的命名应简单、明潦、易记,易于交换数据。设计图纸可按设计工种和图纸目录顺 序命名,如建筑为 J1、J2…,初步设计加注 C,如 JC1、JC2…;结构为 G1、G2…,初步设计加注 C,如 GC1、GC2…;电气为 E1、E2…,初步设计加注 C,如 EC1、EC2…;给排水为 S1、S2…, 初步设计加注 C,如 SC1、SC2…;通风为 H1、H2…,初步设计加注 C,如 HC1、HC2…等。 三、CAD 技巧总汇 1. 执行编辑命令,提示选择目标时,用矩形框方式选择,从左向右拖动光标,为 " 窗口 Windows"方式,如果从右向左拖动光标,则为"交叉 Cross"方式,左选与右选的区别是左选 必须全部框住才算选中,而右选只要框中像素一小部分就可选中像素。 - H# b! w3 o" Y6 `% C8 H- v, b$ r 建 2. 有的用户使用 AutoCAD 时会发现命令中的对话框会变成提示行,如打印命令,控制它的 是系统变量 CMDDIA,关掉它就行了。 3. 椭圆命令生成的椭圆是以多义线还是以椭圆为实体的是由系统变量 PELLIPSE 决定,当 其为 1 时,生成的椭圆是 PLINE。 7 k! d) n; c% r2 @: o 建 4. CMDECHO 变量决定了命令行回显是否产生,其在程序执行中应设为 0。 & x' u+ i9 c5 Lp1 U5 L7 {8 {7 W# 5. DIMSCALE 决定了尺寸标注的比例,其值为整数,缺省为 1,在图形有了一定比例缩放 时应最好将其改成为缩放比例。 4 Y* b/ A4 G& E) G4 B 中国建筑网|建筑|设计|建筑企业|房 地产|建筑下载|建筑新闻|建筑论 6. 空心汉字字形如使用 AutoCAD R14-CAD2006 中的 BONUS 功能(一定要完全安装 AutoCAD,或自定义安装时选了它) ,有一个 TXTEXP 命令,可将文本炸为 7. AutoCAD 的中有一个 ARCTEXT 命令,可实现弧形文本输出,使用方法为先选圆弧,再 输入文本内容,按 OK。 8. BONUS 中有一个有用的命令,即 MPEDIT,用它将多个线一齐修改为多义线,再改它的 线宽 9. AutoCAD 中打印线宽可由颜色设定,这样制图中的各种线型不同、线宽不同的线条可放 入不同的层, 在层中定义了线型的颜色, 而在打印设置中设定线型与颜色的关系, 效果良好。 、 !

m anipulat or control m ode a nd programmabl e controller s introduction 2.1 S elect dis cus sion with ma nipulator contr ol 2.1 .1 cl assificati on of control relays and dis crete ele ctronic circuit can co ntrol old i ndustrial e qui pment, but als o more common. Ma inly these tw o relatively chea p and you ca n meet the ol d-fas hioned, simple (or simple) i ndustrial equipme nt. So he can see them now, however t hese tw o contr ol mode s (relay and dis crete ele ctronic circuits) are thes e fatal flaws: (1) cannot a dapt to t he complex l ogic control, (2) only for the current proj ect, t he lack of com patibi lity and (3) not reforming the sy stem with e qui pment impr ovements. S pring for t he development of China's modern i ndustrial a utomation technology the s ubsta ntial increase i n the level of industrial aut omation, com pleted t he perfect relay of the com put er too much. In terms of controlling t he computer s howed his tw o great advantage s: (1) each of the hardw are ca n be installe d on one or more micr oproces sors ; (2) the 。 转 好 定 稳 势 形 产 生 安 域 领 行 个 动 推 降 下 继 量 总 保 故 事 上 以 较 制 遏 , 管 监 节 环 等 作 殊 特 和 区 地 ”、 大 一 点 重 “两 化 强 续 持 ; 任 责 体 主 业 企 实 落 面 全 official desig ner of the software writing content control is all a bout . Now in s everal ways in t he context of industrial a utomation ca n often be se en i n three ways : (1) Programmable Logica l Controller (referred to as IPC); (2) Distri bute d Control System (DCS for short), and (3) the Programmable Logi cal Controller (PLC for s hort). 2. 1.2 PLC a nd t he IPC and DCS contrast contrast 1, ea ch of the three technologi es of origi ns a nd development requirement s for fast data process ing makes it inve nted the com puter. The me n brought i n terms of hardware there, usi ng a hig h level of standardi zation, ca n use m ore compatibility tool s, is a ri ch s oftware resources , especially t he ne ed for immedia cy in operational systems . So the com put er can effectively control i s used to control and meet its s pee d, on the virtua l model , real-time a nd i n computational re quireme nts. Distri bute d system started wit h a contr ol system for industrial a utomatic i nstrume nt use d to contr ol, whereas now it is succes sfully deve loped int o industrial control computer use d as a central colle ction a nd distri bution system and transiti on of distributed contr ol system in a nalog ue ha ndli ng, l oop control, has beg un t o reflect the use of a huge adva ntage. Thoug h distri bute d system has great adva ntages in l oop regulati on, but only as a means of conti nuous process contr ol. Optimization of PLC is the corr e sponding relay nee ds wa s bor n, its main use i n the w ork order control, early primary is repla ced relay this hulking system, focus ed on the s witch controlli ng the runni ng order of functi ons. Marked by the micr oproces sor i n the early 197 0 of the 20th cent ur y emerged, micr o-el ectronics technol ogy ha s devel ope d rapi dly, people s oon microel ectronics proces sing technology w ill be used i n the Programmable Logi cal Controller (that is

Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. Industrial automati on techn ology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate su bject . Ma nipulator appli cation bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni ence to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the devel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farm land, repeated operations on the high -s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understan d has some usually didn't opport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yihou of design i n the can s ucces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipul ator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut omation te chnol ogy of devel opme nt, Makes me cha nical arm on the Grand stage of ind ustrial aut omation a nd s hine, gradually be came an i ndustrial evaluati on sta ndar ds, a nd its im portance can be see n. Now origi nal roboti c arm spe nt most of mass producti on a nd use on the production line, whi ch is programmed roboti c arm. As the first generation of manipulat or position control s ystems main features, althoug h not back several generati ons t hat ca n dete ct the external e nvironment, but ca n still successf ully com plete like wel ding, painti ng, del ivery as well as for materials simple moveme nts. Se cond generation me cha nical arms are equipped wit h sensors a nd ma nipulators hav e the envir onme nt there is a certain amount of "sense", w hen the mechani cal arm is to use the program as a ba sis . Difference is that t he robot bega nd

h9 ?) j1 N: J, J+ ?建 将 AutoCAD 中的图形插入 WORD 中,有时会发现圆变成了正多边形,用一下 VIEWRES 命令,将它设得大一些,可改变图形质量。 AutoCAD 中档可当作块插入其他档中,但这样一来过多的块使档过于庞大,用 PURGE 来 清除它们吧, 一次清一层, 一定要多用几次呀! / C" M1 z3 S; H- N( |9 G8 \www.jianzhuw.com 在作完零件图进行组装时, 可将零件图块插入后焊开, 再用 group 成组后组装, 这时用 ddselect 命令控制组选取处于何种状态,取消组选时再 在 AutoCAD 中的菜单源文件为.mnu 文件, 将其修改可将自己的命令加入菜单中, 再用 menu 命 令 装 入 , 加 参 加 AutoCAD 说 明 了 解 菜 单 文 件 格 式 + H1 H# c* K7 ]* }% t8 Uwww.jianzhuw.com。图示工具条中加入自己的命令相对简单,可在工具条上点右键,在 toolbar 对话中,点 new 按钮,输入工具条后,一个新工具条产生,再选 Customize 按钮, 选定 custom,将空按钮拖入工具条中,再在空按钮上右键单击,这样就可定义自己的按钮 图标和命令。 AutoCAD 的状态行也可处定义,用 DIESEL 语言可以访问它,最简单的方法用 modemacro 命令,后输入$(getvar,clayer) ,以后当前层名就显示在准确无误行上,用户化可谓无孔不 入吧! AutoCAD 的图形格式为.dwg,也可汇出为.bmp 及.wmf 或.eps、.dxf、.3ds,是如果用 render 命令可存为.pcx、.tga、.tif 格式,AutoCAD 还可将档直接存为这几种格式,要为系统装一个 名为“Raster file export”的打印机,用它打印到档,ACAD2000 还可将档存为 JPG 格式。 render 进行着色时,render 无关闭按钮,用户采用: (arxunload"render") ,因为它是 ARX 文件扩展的功能。 & R# v4 ^' m7 n% X% B, u/ Z/ L2 dimzin 系统变量最好要设定为 8,这时尺寸标注中的缺省值不会带几个尾零,用户直接接受 缺省值十分方便快捷。 - W% k+ v8 Y) m8 Q, v5 B; d7 x 中国建筑网|建筑|设计|建筑企业|房地 产|建筑下载|建筑新闻|建筑 如遇到快捷失效, 如^0 失去作用变为正交模式切换的情况, 请用 menu 将当前使用菜单.mnu 菜单源文件重装一遍即可。 有时在打开 dwg 文件时,系统弹出 “AutoCAD Message” 对话框提示 “Drawing file is not valid ”,告诉用户文件不能打开。这种情况下你可以先退出打开操作,然后打开“File”菜单, 选“Drawing Utilities/Recover”,或者在命令行直接用键盘输入“recover”,接着在“Select File” 对话框中输入要恢复的。 汉化菜单。将 support 目录下的 acad.mnu 档复制为 chinese.mnu。用写字板打开 chinese.mnu。 仔细观察会发现其中有许多类似“* * *POP”的条目,每一条自定义了一列下拉菜单。将引号 中的英文命令名称改为中文,存档退出。再在 CAD 中输入“menu”命令,将 chinese.mnu 菜 单档装入, 下拉菜单就变成了中文。 还可以再装入 acad.mnu 档将菜单还原。- f: J( n5 K+ O `5 R" |+ R14 默认的“命令取消”键是“ESC”键,如果你已经*惯了 R12 的“Ctrl+C”怎么办呢?点击菜 单 Tools\preferences\compatibility\priority for accelerator keys\autoCAD classic,然后就可以用 “Ctrl+C”取消命令了,同时“ESC”键仍然有效。 用 R14 打开 R11 和 R12 的档时,即使正确地选择了汉字字库,还是会出现汉字乱码,原因 是 R14 与 R11 或 R12 采用的代码页不同。 可到本站或 AutoDesk 公司主页下载代码页转换工 具 wnewcp。运行 wnewcp 后,首先选中“R11/R12”复选框,再单击“Browse”按钮,选择要转 换的文件或目录,然后选择新的代码页,ANSI936 或 GB2312 均可,单击“Start Conversion” 即开始转换。转换后,在 R14 中就能正确地显示汉字。 在 AutoCAD 中有时尺寸箭头及 Trace 画的轨迹线变为空心,用 TRIMMODE 命令,在提示

m anipulat or control m ode a nd programmabl e controller s introduction 2.1 S elect dis cus sion with ma nipulator contr ol 2.1 .1 cl assificati on of control relays and dis crete ele ctronic circuit can control old i ndustrial e qui pment, but als o more common. Ma inl y these tw o relatively chea p and you ca n meet the ol d-fas hioned, simple (or simple) i ndustrial equipme nt. So he can see them now, however t hese tw o contr ol mode s (relay and dis crete ele ctronic circuits) are thes e fatal flaws: (1) cannot a dapt to t he complex l ogic control, (2) only for the current proj ect, t he lack of com patibi lity and (3) not reforming the sy stem with e qui pment impr ovements. S pring for t he development of China's modern i ndustrial a utomation technology the s ubsta ntial increase i n the level of industrial aut omation, com pleted t he perfect relay of the com puter too much. In terms of controlling t he computer s howed his t w o great advantage s: (1) each of the hardw are ca n be installe d on one or more micr oproces sors ; (2) the 。 转 好 定 稳 势 形 产 生 安 域 领 行 个 动 推 降 下 继 量 总 保 故 事 上 以 较 制 遏 , 管 监 节 环 等 作 殊 特 和 区 地 ”、 大 一 点 重 “两 化 强 续 持 ; 任 责 体 主 业 企 实 落 面 全 official desig ner of the software writing content control is all a bout . Now in s everal ways in t he context of industrial a utomation ca n often be se en i n three ways : (1) Programmable Logica l Controller (referred to as IPC); (2) Distri bute d Control System (DCS for short), and (3) the Programmable Logi cal Controller (PLC for s hort). 2. 1.2 PLC a nd t he IPC and DCS contrast contrast 1, ea ch of the three technologi es of origi ns a nd development requirement s for fast data process ing makes it inve nted the com puter. The me n brought i n term s of hardware there, usi ng a hig h level of standardi zation, ca n use m ore compatibility tool s, is a ri ch s oftware resources , especia lly t he ne ed for immedia cy in operational systems . So the com puter can effectively control i s used to control and meet its s pee d, on the virtua l model , real-time a nd i n computational re quireme nts. Distri bute d system started wit h a contr ol system for industrial a utomatic i nstrume nt use d to contr ol, whereas now it is succes sfully deve loped int o industrial control computer use d as a central colle ction a nd distri bution system and transiti on of distributed contr ol system in a nalog ue ha ndli ng, l oop control, has beg un t o reflect the use of a huge adva ntage. Thoug h distri bute d system has great adva ntages in l oop regulati on, but only as a means of conti nuous process contr ol. Optimization of PLC is the corre sponding relay nee ds wa s bor n, its main use i n the w ork order control, early primary is repla ced relay this hulking system, focus ed on the s witch controlli ng the runni ng order of functi on s. Marked by the micr oproces sor i n the early 197 0 of the 20th cent ury emerged, micr o-el ectronics technol ogy ha s devel ope d rapi dly, people s oon microel ectronics proces sing technology w ill be used i n the Programm able Logi cal Controller (that is

Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. Industrial automati on technology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate subject . Ma nipulator appli cat ion bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni en ce to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the de vel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farmland, repeated operations on the high-s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understand has some usually didn't o pport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yi hou of design i n the can s ucces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipulator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut omation te chnol ogy of devel opme nt, Makes me cha nical arm on the Grand stage of ind ustrial aut omation a nd s hine, gradually be came an i ndustrial evaluati on sta ndar ds, a nd its im portance can be see n. Now origi nal roboti c arm spe nt most of mass producti on a nd use on the production line, whi ch is programmed roboti c arm. As the first generation of manipulator position control s ystems main features, althoug h not back several generati ons t hat ca n dete ct the external e nvironment, but ca n still successf ully com plete like wel ding, painti ng, del ivery as well as for materials simple moveme nts. Se cond generation me cha nical arms are equipped wit h sensors a nd ma nipulators hav e the envir onme nt there is a certain amount of "sense", w hen the mechani cal arm is to use the progr am as a ba sis . Difference is that t he robot bega nd

行下输新值 1 可将其重新变为实心。 9 O1 f& _' A! |8 w n 中国建筑网|建筑|设计|建筑企业| 房地产|建筑下载|建筑新闻|建筑论 用 AutoCAD 打开一张旧图,有时会遇到异常错误而中断退出,这时首先使用 28 介绍的方 法,如果问题仍然存在,则可以新建一个图形文件,而把旧图用图块形式插入,可以解决问 题。 巧用工具按钮自定义。 AutoCAD 中有许多 lsp 档能为我们提供非常实用的命令, 如 chtext.lsp 就是一个很好的文字修改命令, 尤其适用于大批文字的修改, 但在使用这样的命令之前必须 先把 lsp 档加载。一般你可以通过选取“Tools”菜单中“LoadApplication ...”选项,再利用对话 框打开 AutoCAD R14/Support 下的 Chtext.lsp 档, 然后击 “Load”钮, 或者也可以直接在命令 行中键入“(load “chtext”)”以达到载入的目的,如此做总有些繁琐。下面我们用自定义工 具按钮的方式解决这个问题,右击任意工具钮,弹出“Toolbars”对话框,击“Customize...”钮, 在“Categories:”中选“Custom”项,将出现的空按钮拖到工具条中目标位置,击“Close”钮返 回, 接着右击空按钮, 出现“Button Properties”对话框, 在“Name: ”栏中为命令钮命名, “Help: ” 栏中你可写入或不写入内容, 然后在“Macro: ”中键入( “ load “chtext”) cht”, 至于“Button Icon", 用户可选系统提供的图标,也可以点“Edit...”自行绘制或者直接调用已有的 bmp 档,最后点 “Apply”钮并依次关闭对话框返回。 这样你自己的工作按钮就做成了。 由于在后面增加了“cht” (注意:前面要有空格) ,所以你只要按下工具钮便可以直接去选择要编辑的目标文件。 在 Word 文文件中插入 AutoCAD 图形$ R' M( o4 r! u9 S: e! C2 y 中国建筑网|建筑|设计|建筑企 业|房地产|建筑下载|建筑新闻|建筑论文 Word 文档制作中,往往需要各种插图, Word 绘图功 能有限,特别是复杂的图形,该缺点更加明显,AutoCAD 是专业绘图软件,功能强大,很 适合绘制比较复杂的图形,用 AutoCAD 绘制好图形,然后插入 Word 制作复合文档是解决 问题的好办法,可以用 AutoCAD 提供的 EXPORT 功能先将 AutocAD 图形以 BMP 或 WMF 等格式输出,然后插入 Word 文档,也可以先将 AutoCAD 图形拷贝到剪贴板,再在 Word 文档中粘贴。须注意的是,由于 AutoCAD 默认背景颜色为黑色,而 Word 背景颜色为白色, 首先应将 AutoCAD 图形背景颜色改成白色。另外,AutoCAD 图形插入 Word 文文件后,往 往空边过大,效果不理% Y# L. \' r+ g) G 想。利用 Word 图片工具栏上的裁剪功能进行修整, 空边过大问题即可解决。 图形的打印技巧: v: ]- r7 X" B: w7 e( o0 X 由于没有安装打印机或想用别人高档打印机输入 AutoCAD 图形,需要到别的计算机去打印 AutoCAD 图形,但是别的计算机也可能没安装 AutoCAD,或者因为各种原因(如 AutoCAD 图形在别的计算机上字体显示不正常,通过网 络打印,网络打印不正常等) ,不能利用别的计算机进行正常打印,这时,可以先在自己计 算机上将 AutoCAD 图形打印到文件,形成打印机文件,然后,再在别的计算机上用 DOS 的拷贝命令将打印机文件输出到打印机,方法为:copy <打印机文件> prn /b,须注意的 是,为了能使用该功能,需先在系统中添加别的计算机上特定型号打印机,并将它设为默认 打印机,另外,COPY 后不要忘了在最后加/b,表明以二进制形式将打印机文件输出到打 印机。 选择技巧用户可以用鼠标一个一个地选择目标,选择的目标逐个地添加到选择集中,另外, AutoCAD 还提供了 Window (以键入“w”回应 Select object: 或直接在屏幕上自右至佐拉一个 矩形框响应 Select object:提示) ,Crossing(以键入“C”回应 Select object:或直接在屏幕上 自左至右拉一个矩形框响应 Select object: 提示) , Cpolygon (以键入“CP”回应 Select object: ) , Wpolygon(以键入“WP”回应 Select object: )等多种窗口方式选择目标,其中 Window 及 Crossing 用于矩形窗口, 而 Wpolygon 及 Cpolygon 用于多边形窗口, 在 Window 及 Wpolygon 方式下, 只有当实体的所有部分都被包含在窗口时, 实体才被选中, 而在 Crossing 及 Cpolygon 方式下,只要实体的一部分包括在窗口内,实体就被选择像。AutoCAD 还提供了 Fence 方

m anipulat or control m ode a nd programmabl e controller s introduction 2.1 S elect dis cus sion with ma nipulator contr ol 2.1 .1 cl assificati on of control relays and dis crete ele ctronic circuit can co ntrol old i ndustrial e qui pment, but als o more common. Ma inly these tw o relatively chea p and you ca n meet the ol d-fas hioned, simple (or simple) i ndustrial equipme nt. So he can see them now, however t hese tw o contr ol mode s (relay and dis crete ele ctronic circuits) are thes e fatal flaws: (1) cannot a dapt to t he complex l ogic control, (2) only for the current proj ect, t he lack of com patibi lity and (3) not reforming the sy stem with e qui pment impr ovements. S pring for t he development of China's modern i ndustrial a utomation technology the s ubsta ntial increase i n the level of industrial aut omation, com pleted t he perfect relay of the com put er too much. In terms of controlling t he computer s howed his tw o great advantage s: (1) each of the hardw are ca n be installe d on one or more micr oproces sors ; (2) the 。 转 好 定 稳 势 形 产 生 安 域 领 行 个 动 推 降 下 继 量 总 保 故 事 上 以 较 制 遏 , 管 监 节 环 等 作 殊 特 和 区 地 ”、 大 一 点 重 “两 化 强 续 持 ; 任 责 体 主 业 企 实 落 面 全 official desig ner of the software writing content control is all a bout . Now in s everal ways in t he context of industrial a utomation ca n often be se en i n three ways : (1) Programmable Logica l Controller (referred to as IPC); (2) Distri bute d Control System (DCS for short), and (3) the Programmable Logi cal Controller (PLC for s hort). 2. 1.2 PLC a nd t he IPC and DCS contrast contrast 1, ea ch of the three technologi es of origi ns a nd development requirement s for fast data process ing makes it inve nted the com puter. The me n brought i n terms of hardware there, usi ng a hig h level of standardi zation, ca n use m ore compatibility tool s, is a ri ch s oftware resources , especially t he ne ed for immedia cy in operational systems . So the com put er can effectively control i s used to control and meet its s pee d, on the virtua l model , real-time a nd i n computational re quireme nts. Distri bute d system started wit h a contr ol system for industrial a utomatic i nstrume nt use d to contr ol, whereas now it is succes sfully deve loped int o industrial control computer use d as a central colle ction a nd distri bution system and transiti on of distributed contr ol system in a nalog ue ha ndli ng, l oop control, has beg un t o reflect the use of a huge adva ntage. Thoug h distri bute d system has great adva ntages in l oop regulati on, but only as a means of conti nuous process contr ol. Optimization of PLC is the corr e sponding relay nee ds wa s bor n, its main use i n the w ork order control, early primary is repla ced relay this hulking system, focus ed on the s witch controlli ng the runni ng order of functi ons. Marked by the micr oproces sor i n the early 197 0 of the 20th cent ur y emerged, micr o-el ectronics technol ogy ha s devel ope d rapi dly, people s oon microel ectronics proces sing technology w ill be used i n the Programmable Logi cal Controller (that is

Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. Industrial automati on techn ology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate su bject . Ma nipulator appli cation bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni ence to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the devel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farm land, repeated operations on the high -s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understan d has some usually didn't opport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yihou of design i n the can s ucces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipul ator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut omation te chnol ogy of devel opme nt, Makes me cha nical arm on the Grand stage of ind ustrial aut omation a nd s hine, gradually be came an i ndustrial evaluati on sta ndar ds, a nd its im portance can be see n. Now origi nal roboti c arm spe nt most of mass producti on a nd use on the production line, whi ch is programmed roboti c arm. As the first generation of manipulat or position control s ystems main features, althoug h not back several generati ons t hat ca n dete ct the external e nvironment, but ca n still successf ully com plete like wel ding, painti ng, del ivery as well as for materials simple moveme nts. Se cond generation me cha nical arms are equipped wit h sensors a nd ma nipulators hav e the envir onme nt there is a certain amount of "sense", w hen the mechani cal arm is to use the program as a ba sis . Difference is that t he robot bega nd

式(以键入“F”响应 Select object: )选择实体,画出一条不闭合的折线,所有和该折线相交 的实体即被选择。在选择目标时,有时会不小心选中不该选择的目标,这时用户可以键入 R 来响应“select objects:”提示,然后把一些误选的目标从选择集中剔除,然后键入 A,再向 选择集中添加目标。当所选择实体和别的实体紧挨在一起时可在按住 CTRL 键的同时,然 后连续单击鼠标左键,这时紧挨在一起的实体依次高亮度显示,直到所选实体高亮度显示, 再按下 enter 键(或单击鼠标右键) ,即选择了该实体。还可以有条件选择实体,即用“filter 响应 select objects: , 在 AutoCAD2000 中, 还提供了 QuickSelect 方式选择实体, 功能和 filter 类似,但操作更简单,方便。AutoCAD 提供的选择集的构造方法功能很强,灵活恰当地使 用可使制图的效率大大提高。 质量属性查询- F/ Y, t3 g) Twww.jianzhuw.comAutoCAD 提供点坐标(ID) ,距离(Distance) , 面积(area)的查询,给图形的分析带来了很大的方便,但是在实际工作中,有时还须查询 实体质量属性特性,AutoCAD 提供实体质量属性查询(Mass Properties) ,可以方便查询实 体的惯性矩、面积矩、实体的质心等,须注意的是,对于曲线、多义线构造的闭合区域,应 先用 region 命令将闭合区域面域化,再执行质量属性查询,才可查询实体的惯性矩、面积 矩、实体的质心等属性。 字体样式设置中,字体列表中有两种中文字体,一种是前面有个?的字体,如“TT?宋体”, 另一种是“TT 宋体”。如果你选择了前面有?的字体,那个字体会倒过来,如果你选择了没 有?的字体,那种字体就是正常的。你不妨试试,不知道是不是你所说的那样。 十字光标尺寸改变 8 a$ Y# w1 u- u5 {( W6 o6 g 工程图绘制时,要按投影规律绘图。为了便 于"长对正,高*齐,宽相等",绘图时,可调整十字光标尺寸,即用 options 命令或选择下 拉菜单 Tools(工具)/ Options(系统配置),打开 Options 对话框,找到 Display(显示)选项卡, 通过修改 Crosshair Size(十字光标大小)区中的光标与屏幕大小的百分比或拖动滑块,可改变 缺省值 5%,不宜太大,否则当你绘图速度很快的时候,因十字光标太大眼睛非常难受,影 响速度。 , \! l, A6 t. ^- g: [0 w 有时我们需要在不炸开块的情况下直接修改插入块里的文字的内容,使用 refedit 即可,具 体操作如下: a、在命令行输入"refedit"命令后回车,选择需要修改的那个块,此时会弹出"参照编辑"对话 框; 7 }" J$ b9 M; a3 m8 P+ }b、直接点击"确定"按钮,使用默认设置,随后"参照编辑"工具栏会 启动; c、此时就可以用"ddedit"命令直接修改插入块里的文字的内容; d、内容修改完后,点击"参照编辑"工具栏上的"将修改保存到参照"按钮,修改完毕; t9 S1 n9 Z8 U4 q; C6 {0 m7 K 中国建筑网|建筑|设计|建筑企业|房地产|建筑下载|建筑新闻|建 筑论文 e、此命令亦可对块里的其它部分进行修改,例如块里的各个图形实体等; f、此命令对外部参照"Xref"同样适用。 8 q# l% }. E1 R3 p8 缩放和*移在用 AutoCAD 设计时,缩放和*移命令使用的次数最多。 缩放时,你可能会迷失方位,忘了原来的位置,或忘了要转到哪里,或需要快速返回原来的 视图。如果缩放或*移的次数很多,返回原来的视图时光敲“回退”(UNDO)就够累的,还好 2006 版提供了改良的缩放和*移功能。有一个新的系统变量:VTENABLE,它可启用*滑 转换来切换显示区域。例如,如果执行了范围缩放,而且启动了*滑转换,则用户可看到图 形从局部的视图动态地转到整个图形。 *滑视图转换说明用户保持图形中的可视方位。 更进 一步的改进了,整个缩放和*移过程,可通过设置把它们看成单独的一个操作看待。这个设 置在选项对话框中的用户系统设置卷标中设置。这样,只需要一步就可以回到以前的视图, 真是省时省力。 2 P. ~5 T+ x7 a1 Iwww.jianzhuw.com

m anipulat or control m ode a nd programmabl e controller s introduction 2.1 S elect dis cus sion with ma nipulator contr ol 2.1 .1 cl assificati on of control relays and dis crete ele ctronic circuit can control old i ndustrial e qui pment, but als o more common. Ma inl y these tw o relatively chea p and you ca n meet the ol d-fas hioned, simple (or simple) i ndustrial equipme nt. So he can see them now, however t hese tw o contr ol mode s (relay and dis crete ele ctronic circuits) are thes e fatal flaws: (1) cannot a dapt to t he complex l ogic control, (2) only for the current proj ect, t he lack of com patibi lity and (3) not reforming the sy stem with e qui pment impr ovements. S pring for t he development of China's modern i ndustrial a utomation technology the s ubsta ntial increase i n the level of industrial aut omation, com pleted t he perfect relay of the com puter too much. In terms of controlling t he computer s howed his t w o great advantage s: (1) each of the hardw are ca n be installe d on one or more micr oproces sors ; (2) the 。 转 好 定 稳 势 形 产 生 安 域 领 行 个 动 推 降 下 继 量 总 保 故 事 上 以 较 制 遏 , 管 监 节 环 等 作 殊 特 和 区 地 ”、 大 一 点 重 “两 化 强 续 持 ; 任 责 体 主 业 企 实 落 面 全 official desig ner of the software writing content control is all a bout . Now in s everal ways in t he context of industrial a utomation ca n often be se en i n three ways : (1) Programmable Logica l Controller (referred to as IPC); (2) Distri bute d Control System (DCS for short), and (3) the Programmable Logi cal Controller (PLC for s hort). 2. 1.2 PLC a nd t he IPC and DCS contrast contrast 1, ea ch of the three technologi es of origi ns a nd development requirement s for fast data process ing makes it inve nted the com puter. The me n brought i n term s of hardware there, usi ng a hig h level of standardi zation, ca n use m ore compatibility tool s, is a ri ch s oftware resources , especia lly t he ne ed for immedia cy in operational systems . So the com puter can effectively control i s used to control and meet its s pee d, on the virtua l model , real-time a nd i n computational re quireme nts. Distri bute d system started wit h a contr ol system for industrial a utomatic i nstrume nt use d to contr ol, whereas now it is succes sfully deve loped int o industrial control computer use d as a central colle ction a nd distri bution system and transiti on of distributed contr ol system in a nalog ue ha ndli ng, l oop control, has beg un t o reflect the use of a huge adva ntage. Thoug h distri bute d system has great adva ntages in l oop regulati on, but only as a means of conti nuous process contr ol. Optimization of PLC is the corre sponding relay nee ds wa s bor n, its main use i n the w ork order control, early primary is repla ced relay this hulking system, focus ed on the s witch controlli ng the runni ng order of functi on s. Marked by the micr oproces sor i n the early 197 0 of the 20th cent ury emerged, micr o-el ectronics technol ogy ha s devel ope d rapi dly, people s oon microel ectronics proces sing technology w ill be used i n the Programm able Logi cal Controller (that is

Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. Industrial automati on technology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate subject . Ma nipulator appli cat ion bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni en ce to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the de vel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farmland, repeated operations on the high-s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understand has some usually didn't o pport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yi hou of design i n the can s ucces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipulator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut omation te chnol ogy of devel opme nt, Makes me cha nical arm on the Grand stage of ind ustrial aut omation a nd s hine, gradually be came an i ndustrial evaluati on sta ndar ds, a nd its im portance can be see n. Now origi nal roboti c arm spe nt most of mass producti on a nd use on the production line, whi ch is programmed roboti c arm. As the first generation of manipulator position control s ystems main features, althoug h not back several generati ons t hat ca n dete ct the external e nvironment, but ca n still successf ully com plete like wel ding, painti ng, del ivery as well as for materials simple moveme nts. Se cond generation me cha nical arms are equipped wit h sensors a nd ma nipulators hav e the envir onme nt there is a certain amount of "sense", w hen the mechani cal arm is to use the progr am as a ba sis . Difference is that t he robot bega nd

打 印 问:PLOT 和 ASE 命令后只能在命令行出现提示,而没有弹出对话框,为什么? 答:AutoCAD 的系统变量 CMDDIA 用来控制 PLOT 命令和 ASE 命令的对话框显示,设置 CMDDIA 为 1,就可以解决问题。 问:打印出来的图效果非常差,线条有灰度的差异,为什么? 答:这种情况,大多与打印机或绘图仪的配置,驱动程序,以及操作系统有关。通常从以下 几点考虑,就可以解决问题。 a.配置打印机或绘图仪时,误差抖动开关是否关闭;Y b.打印机或绘图仪的驱动程序是否正确,是否需要升级; 如果把 AutoCAD 配置成以系统打印机方式输出,换用 AutoCAD 为各类打印机和绘图仪提 供的 ADI 驱动程序重新配置 AutoCAD 打印机; d.对不同型号的打印机或绘图仪,AutoCAD 都提供了相应的命令,可以进一步详细配置。 例如对支持 HPGL/2 语言的绘图仪系列,可使用命令“hpconfig”; e.在 AutoCAD Plot 对话框中,设置笔号与颜色和线型以及笔宽的对应关系;为不同的颜色 指定相同的笔号(最好同为 1) ,但这一笔号所对应的线型和笔宽,可以不同。某些喷墨打 印机只能支持 1-16 的笔号,如果笔号太大则无法打印;笔宽的设置是否太大,例如大于 1; g.操作系统如果是 Windows NT,可能需要更新的 NT 补丁包(Service Pack) 。 问:安装 R14 以后,MS WORD 里什么字体也没有了,怎么回事? 答:影响 MS WORD 字体的原因,是与 R14 为系统安装的一个叫做 Phantom AutoCAD OLE/ADI 的虚拟打印机有关。 Phantom AutoCAD OLE/ADI 虚拟打印机使得 R14 能够通过新 的 ADI 驱动程序,打印或绘制位图形。R14 典型安装中,并不包含这个选项,只有在全安 装或定制安装时,才会产生这个虚拟打印机,有时它还会被设置为默认系统打印机,而不做 任何提示。 根据 Microsoft Office 软件"所见即所得"的原则, MS WORD 文文件所使用的字体, 与系统默认打印机有关。 也就是说, 屏幕显示字体应与打印机打印字体一样或相*。 Windows 首先会根据打印机打印字体,去寻找合适的屏幕显示字体,如果找不到匹配的字体,或打印 机驱动程序不提供屏幕字体信息, Windows 会选择最接*打印机字体的屏幕字体。如果把 Phantom AutoCAD OLE/ADI 的虚拟打印机作为默认系统打印机,MS WORD 的字体就只有 两种:morden 和 plotter。 在 Windows 系统中,指定正确的系统打印机作为默认打印机, MS WORD 的字体就可以恢复正常了。如果系统里没有其他任何打印机,就应该在“打印机 设置”里,先配置一个 Windows 系统打印机,即使是个“逻辑”的打印机也可。 有一点要切 记,不能修改 Phantom AutoCAD OLE/ADI 虚拟打印机的属性,更不能随意删除它,否则, 将会影响位图形和 OLE 对象的输出,甚至会引起系统崩溃。 问:粘贴到 Word 文文件中的 AutoCAD 图形,打印出的线条太细,怎么办? 答:把 AutoCAD 的图形剪贴到 MS Word 文文件里,看起来一切都比较顺利。但当把文档打 印出来后,那些 AutoCAD 图形线条变得非常细,效果着实不好。我们提供给用户如下的解 决方法: a. 在 AutoCAD 中使用 PostScript 打印驱动程序, 配置一个 PostScript 打印机。如果 AutoCAD 的背景颜色与 MS Word 的背景颜色不同,例如 R14 默认的背景颜色是黑色,这时要先改变 AutoCAD 的背景颜色,与 MS Word 的背景颜色相同。 c.运行 PLOT 命令,选择出图到档。在画笔指定对话框中设置笔的宽度。开始一个新图, 用 PSIN 命令输入这个.eps 文件。 e. 然后再把图形剪贴到 MS Word 中还有一种方法, 可以在 AutoCAD 中将线条转换成 PLINE 线,设好宽度再复制、粘贴到 WORD 中。 问:为什么有些图形能显示,却打印不出来?

m anipulat or control m ode a nd programmabl e controller s introduction 2.1 S elect dis cus sion with ma nipulator contr ol 2.1 .1 cl assificati on of control relays and dis crete ele ctronic circuit can co ntrol old i ndustrial e qui pment, but als o more common. Ma inly these tw o relatively chea p and you ca n meet the ol d-fas hioned, simple (or simple) i ndustrial equipme nt. So he can see them now, however t hese tw o contr ol mode s (relay and dis crete ele ctronic circuits) are thes e fatal flaws: (1) cannot a dapt to t he complex l ogic control, (2) only for the current proj ect, t he lack of com patibi lity and (3) not reforming the sy stem with e qui pment impr ovements. S pring for t he development of China's modern i ndustrial a utomation technology the s ubsta ntial increase i n the level of industrial aut omation, com pleted t he perfect relay of the com put er too much. In terms of controlling t he computer s howed his tw o great advantage s: (1) each of the hardw are ca n be installe d on one or more micr oproces sors ; (2) the 。 转 好 定 稳 势 形 产 生 安 域 领 行 个 动 推 降 下 继 量 总 保 故 事 上 以 较 制 遏 , 管 监 节 环 等 作 殊 特 和 区 地 ”、 大 一 点 重 “两 化 强 续 持 ; 任 责 体 主 业 企 实 落 面 全 official desig ner of the software writing content control is all a bout . Now in s everal ways in t he context of industrial a utomation ca n often be se en i n three ways : (1) Programmable Logica l Controller (referred to as IPC); (2) Distri bute d Control System (DCS for short), and (3) the Programmable Logi cal Controller (PLC for s hort). 2. 1.2 PLC a nd t he IPC and DCS contrast contrast 1, ea ch of the three technologi es of origi ns a nd development requirement s for fast data process ing makes it inve nted the com puter. The me n brought i n terms of hardware there, usi ng a hig h level of standardi zation, ca n use m ore compatibility tool s, is a ri ch s oftware resources , especially t he ne ed for immedia cy in operational systems . So the com put er can effectively control i s used to control and meet its s pee d, on the virtua l model , real-time a nd i n computational re quireme nts. Distri bute d system started wit h a contr ol system for industrial a utomatic i nstrume nt use d to contr ol, whereas now it is succes sfully deve loped int o industrial control computer use d as a central colle ction a nd distri bution system and transiti on of distributed contr ol system in a nalog ue ha ndli ng, l oop control, has beg un t o reflect the use of a huge adva ntage. Thoug h distri bute d system has great adva ntages in l oop regulati on, but only as a means of conti nuous process contr ol. Optimization of PLC is the corr e sponding relay nee ds wa s bor n, its main use i n the w ork order control, early primary is repla ced relay this hulking system, focus ed on the s witch controlli ng the runni ng order of functi ons. Marked by the micr oproces sor i n the early 197 0 of the 20th cent ur y emerged, micr o-el ectronics technol ogy ha s devel ope d rapi dly, people s oon microel ectronics proces sing technology w ill be used i n the Programmable Logi cal Controller (that is

Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. Industrial automati on techn ology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate su bject . Ma nipulator appli cation bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni ence to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the devel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farm land, repeated operations on the high -s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understan d has some usually didn't opport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yihou of design i n the can s ucces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipul ator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut omation te chnol ogy of devel opme nt, Makes me cha nical arm on the Grand stage of ind ustrial aut omation a nd s hine, gradually be came an i ndustrial evaluati on sta ndar ds, a nd its im portance can be see n. Now origi nal roboti c arm spe nt most of mass producti on a nd use on the production line, whi ch is programmed roboti c arm. As the first generation of manipulat or position control s ystems main features, althoug h not back several generati ons t hat ca n dete ct the external e nvironment, but ca n still successf ully com plete like wel ding, painti ng, del ivery as well as for materials simple moveme nts. Se cond generation me cha nical arms are equipped wit h sensors a nd ma nipulators hav e the envir onme nt there is a certain amount of "sense", w hen the mechani cal arm is to use the program as a ba sis . Difference is that t he robot bega nd

答:如果图形绘制在 AutoCAD 自动产生的图层(DEFPOINTS、ASHADE 等)上,就会出 现这种情况。应避免在这些层上绘制实体。 从备份文件中恢复图形: 首先要在工具--文件夹选项--显示文件扩展名,然后找到备份文件将其重命名为“.DW G”格 式,最后用打开其他 CAD 档的方法将其打开即可。 在快速选择时,可以用 FI 命令来设置快速选择的类型样式,并用命令 FI 来筛选所需对象。 如 果 在 一 个 图 里 , 图 层 1 的 内 容 被 图 层 2 的 内 容 给 遮 住 了 , 用 TOOL--DISPLAY ORDER--BRING TO FRONT 即可将遮住的内容显示出来。 当绘图时没有虚线框显示, 比如画一个矩形, 取一点后, 拖动鼠标时没有矩形虚框跟着变化, 这时需修改 DRAGMODE 的系统变量,推荐修改为 AUTO。系统变量为 ON 时,再选定要 拖动的对象后, 仅当在命令行中输入 DRAG 后才在拖动时显示对象的轮廓。 系统变量为 OFF 时,在拖动时不显示对象的轮廓。系统变量位 AUTO 时,在拖动时总是显示对象的轮廓。3 u8 c2 J f& `6 AutoCAD 裁剪技巧:6 [9 Y+ A# ]& ^. D, I 如要对部分圆(可以是其他边框)外的直线进行裁 剪,普通办法就是选择裁剪边界后再选择要裁剪的线段即可,实际上 AutoCAD 还有较为简 捷的办法,其做法如下: 8 H8 V; Z! T. y 建筑论坛 1.按常规执行裁剪命令,选择裁剪边界(回车确认) ; 2.在提示选择要裁剪的线段元素时输入“f”(即 fence) ,回车确认; N 3.在提示:First Fence point 下绘制与要裁剪线段相交的连续橡皮筋直线,回车确认即可。 尚需注意两点:1.橡皮筋直线无需闭合;2.橡皮筋直线与要裁剪线段重复相交时,则剪去以 后一次的部分(这点很重要哦) 。- ]! m4 E6 _5 n6 b& a/ Q: [TAB]键在 AutoCAD 捕捉功能中的巧妙利用;当需要捕捉一个物体上的点时,只要将鼠标 靠*某个或某物体,不断的按 TAb 键,这个或这些物体的某些特殊点(如直线的端点、中 间点、垂直点、与物体的交点、圆的四分圆点、中心点、切点、垂直点、交点)就回轮换显 示出来,选择需要的点左键单击即可以捕中这些点。 注意当鼠标靠*两个物体的交点附*时这两个物体的特殊点将先后轮换显示出来 (其所 属物体会变为虚线) ,这对于在图形局部较为复杂时捕捉点很有用。 另外,对于 R14 版的圆中心点、R14 及 R2000 版的原切点、垂直在该直线的延长线上 时的垂直点,仅使用自动捕捉(Object Snap)难以实现,若使用上述“按 TAB 键辅助捕捉” 的方法,这几个点的捕捉将变得较为容易。 cad 中导如 excel 中的表格 $ t; @+ f0 @" R6 b, y5 {. |建筑论坛 a.选中 excel 中的表格,表格的边框要用细线,复制。 3 x- F9 M) B2 R( Y$ L% _+ Cb.在 cad 中在编辑中的选择性粘贴中选 autocad 像素。 ( T7 s/ U& ?+ u4 l2 Y 建筑论坛 c.选择插入点, 你会发现插入的表格线没有对齐, 用反选选中 全部的竖线(有很多横线也被选进来了,下一步我们将去选他们) ,按住 shift 正选表格,注 意不要把竖线全部包在里面,那样竖线也要被你去选了,现在只剩下竖线了,move 他门对 齐,trim 到左上角那根长出去的线,表格画好了,而且和你手动一根一根画线,再填数字的 一模一样。 ' w9 Y8 D, z3 i) @建筑论坛 系统的左手键设置(来自左手键新传) A. 左手键高速的机理: 也许大家都知道《射雕英雄传》里有个周伯通,此人会左右互博 术,深不可测,小说虽是虚构的,可它所揭示的道理却是存在的,周伯通只会左手画方,右 手画圆,充其量只是一心二用,而左手键使用者都能做到一心三用,左手键盘,右手鼠标, 各负其责,眼睛盯着屏幕协调左右手,在这里我特别提醒一点,一定要会左手盲打,不会就

m anipulat or control m ode a nd programmabl e controller s introduction 2.1 S elect dis cus sion with ma nipulator contr ol 2.1 .1 cl assificati on of control relays and dis crete ele ctronic circuit can control old i ndustrial e qui pment, but als o more common. Ma inl y these tw o relatively chea p and you ca n meet the ol d-fas hioned, simple (or simple) i ndustrial equipme nt. So he can see them now, however t hese tw o contr ol mode s (relay and dis crete ele ctronic circuits) are thes e fatal flaws: (1) cannot a dapt to t he complex l ogic control, (2) only for the current proj ect, t he lack of com patibi lity and (3) not reforming the sy stem with e qui pment impr ovements. S pring for t he development of China's modern i ndustrial a utomation technology the s ubsta ntial increase i n the level of industrial aut omation, com pleted t he perfect relay of the com puter too much. In terms of controlling t he computer s howed his t w o great advantage s: (1) each of the hardw are ca n be installe d on one or more micr oproces sors ; (2) the 。 转 好 定 稳 势 形 产 生 安 域 领 行 个 动 推 降 下 继 量 总 保 故 事 上 以 较 制 遏 , 管 监 节 环 等 作 殊 特 和 区 地 ”、 大 一 点 重 “两 化 强 续 持 ; 任 责 体 主 业 企 实 落 面 全 official desig ner of the software writing content control is all a bout . Now in s everal ways in t he context of industrial a utomation ca n often be se en i n three ways : (1) Programmable Logica l Controller (referred to as IPC); (2) Distri bute d Control System (DCS for short), and (3) the Programmable Logi cal Controller (PLC for s hort). 2. 1.2 PLC a nd t he IPC and DCS contrast contrast 1, ea ch of the three technologi es of origi ns a nd development requirement s for fast data process ing makes it inve nted the com puter. The me n brought i n term s of hardware there, usi ng a hig h level of standardi zation, ca n use m ore compatibility tool s, is a ri ch s oftware resources , especia lly t he ne ed for immedia cy in operational systems . So the com puter can effectively control i s used to control and meet its s pee d, on the virtua l model , real-time a nd i n computational re quireme nts. Distri bute d system started wit h a contr ol system for industrial a utomatic i nstrume nt use d to contr ol, whereas now it is succes sfully deve loped int o industrial control computer use d as a central colle ction a nd distri bution system and transiti on of distributed contr ol system in a nalog ue ha ndli ng, l oop control, has beg un t o reflect the use of a huge adva ntage. Thoug h distri bute d system has great adva ntages in l oop regulati on, but only as a means of conti nuous process contr ol. Optimization of PLC is the corre sponding relay nee ds wa s bor n, its main use i n the w ork order control, early primary is repla ced relay this hulking system, focus ed on the s witch controlli ng the runni ng order of functi on s. Marked by the micr oproces sor i n the early 197 0 of the 20th cent ury emerged, micr o-el ectronics technol ogy ha s devel ope d rapi dly, people s oon microel ectronics proces sing technology w ill be used i n the Programm able Logi cal Controller (that is

Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. Industrial automati on technology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate subject . Ma nipulator appli cat ion bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni en ce to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the de vel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farmland, repeated operations on the high-s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understand has some usually didn't o pport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yi hou of design i n the can s ucces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipulator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut omation te chnol ogy of devel opme nt, Makes me cha nical arm on the Grand stage of ind ustrial aut omation a nd s hine, gradually be came an i ndustrial evaluati on sta ndar ds, a nd its im portance can be see n. Now origi nal roboti c arm spe nt most of mass producti on a nd use on the production line, whi ch is programmed roboti c arm. As the first generation of manipulator position control s ystems main features, althoug h not back several generati ons t hat ca n dete ct the external e nvironment, but ca n still successf ully com plete like wel ding, painti ng, del ivery as well as for materials simple moveme nts. Se cond generation me cha nical arms are equipped wit h sensors a nd ma nipulators hav e the envir onme nt there is a certain amount of "sense", w hen the mechani cal arm is to use the progr am as a ba sis . Difference is that t he robot bega nd

抓紧练,否责其高速功效不但不会发挥出来,相反您反受其累,切记! B. 左手键设置的原则: 您大可不必去记别人左手键的代码,那不但不会增加你的功力,反 而会束缚你的思想,不管你是什么专业,用 CAD 制什么图,您在制图的过程中,肯定会有 些命令用得极为频繁,你将最频繁命令的简码设在你左手最拿手的键上.在设置简码时,最 好不要改变原 CAD 中的简码, 一方面可方便别人也能使用你的 CAD, 另外一方面默认的简 码正如一些网友说的有其一定的道理在里面,不要随意去改变它,就拿我来说吧,谁都可以 用我计算机上的 CAD,不过别人用与我自己用,那完全是二重天.也许有人会问,即不改变 原代码又要增加那么多代码,左手键有那么多空键吗?回答肯定的,细心一点的使用者会发 现,光左手键没定义的二个字母的组合,完成你左手简码的设置已经绰绰有余.总而言之, 左手键的设置要力求自然、 实用, 越是自然的东西越是厉害, 也许这里面融入了某种哲学吧。 C. 左手键设置的方法: 设置简码大至有三种方法:其一,就是最常见方法,在 PGP 中完成, PGP 档对不同的 CAD 版本位置不一样, CAD2004 以下的版本, 可在安装目录 C:\PROGRAME FILES\AUTOCAD2002(2000)\SUPPORT 文件夹中找到, 找到后按原格式进行增加或修改, 保存关闭, 以后启动 CAD 时就可使用新设置的简码了; CAD2004 及以*姹疽蛭罢医细 杂,我建议使用下面的第二种方法。在 PGP 中的改的优点是每次您使用简码时,在命令行 中会显示完整的命令字母,别小看这一细处,对初设简码的人大有帮助,这样就可做到边用 边记,用记结合,完全避免了记忆负担,无形中就掌握好了,缺点是它很有限,只能改改简 单的,光靠它还是不行的。 其二,在 AUTOCAD 接口中直截增加修改,此方法只限于 CAD2004 及以*姹荆 CAD 接口中打开 “工具\自定义\编辑自定义文件\程序参数(ACAD.PGP)”,打开之后,您会发现与 前一种方法的 PGP 是一样的,增加修改后,运行 REINIT 命令,勾上 PGP FILE 选框,就会 设置生效,当然* CAD 也会生效. 其三,利用 LISP 程序进行修改增加,为什么要用 LISP 程序来设置简码了?这是因为前二种 方法只能改一般的命令,那是很有限的,随便打个比方来说,我现在要用左手”SW”组合键 直接从 TOP 视图进入到西南视图, PGP 只能是爱莫能助, 而 LISP 程序不但能完成此任务, 还有更吸引人的一点是,它可将 AUTOCAD 中的命令进行压缩合并,您也不必担心你没学 LISP 程序,我给你们三个命令格式,并附有语法说明,你们认真体会,格式如下: A.命令简化格式 (DEFUN C:简码 () (COMMAND "命令") 例 1 用 Q 键代替 LINE 命令 程序为 (DEFUN C: Q () (COMMAND "LINE")) B.命令压缩格式 (DEFUN C:简码 () (COMMAND "命令" "命令行中的选项" "命令行中的选 项" "命令行中的选项" "")) 例 2 用 SW 键代替进入西南视图的命令, 程序为 (DEFUN C:SW () (COMMAND "-VIEW" "SWISO")) 例 3 用 QC1 组合键将直线改为颜色为 8,线型为中心点划线,线型比例为 1000 的直线 , 程序为 (DEFUN CC1 () (COMMAND "CHANGE" (SSGET) ""LTYPE" "CENTER" "C" "8" "LTS" "1000" "")) C. 命令合并格式 (DEFUN C: 简码 () (COMMAND " 命令一 " " 命令行中的选项 " PAUSE PAUSE "命令二" "命令行中的选项" "")) 例 4 用 A4 组合键表示画一个四边形并填充,程序为 (DEFUN C:A4 () (COMMAND "OLYGON" "4" "E" PAUSE PAUSE "HATCH" "S" "L" "")) D.语法说明: ( EDEFUN 表示定义函数. C: 表示命令与硬盘无关. SSGET 暂停,等待用户进行实时选择操作后,执行随后的操作.

m anipulat or control m ode a nd programmabl e controller s introduction 2.1 S elect dis cus sion with ma nipulator contr ol 2.1 .1 cl assificati on of control relays and dis crete ele ctronic circuit can co ntrol old i ndustrial e qui pment, but als o more common. Ma inly these tw o relatively chea p and you ca n meet the ol d-fas hioned, simple (or simple) i ndustrial equipme nt. So he can see them now, however t hese tw o contr ol mode s (relay and dis crete ele ctronic circuits) are thes e fatal flaws: (1) cannot a dapt to t he complex l ogic control, (2) only for the current proj ect, t he lack of com patibi lity and (3) not reforming the sy stem with e qui pment impr ovements. S pring for t he development of China's modern i ndustrial a utomation technology the s ubsta ntial increase i n the level of industrial aut omation, com pleted t he perfect relay of the com put er too much. In terms of controlling t he computer s howed his tw o great advantage s: (1) each of the hardw are ca n be installe d on one or more micr oproces sors ; (2) the 。 转 好 定 稳 势 形 产 生 安 域 领 行 个 动 推 降 下 继 量 总 保 故 事 上 以 较 制 遏 , 管 监 节 环 等 作 殊 特 和 区 地 ”、 大 一 点 重 “两 化 强 续 持 ; 任 责 体 主 业 企 实 落 面 全 official desig ner of the software writing content control is all a bout . Now in s everal ways in t he context of industrial a utomation ca n often be se en i n three ways : (1) Programmable Logica l Controller (referred to as IPC); (2) Distri bute d Control System (DCS for short), and (3) the Programmable Logi cal Controller (PLC for s hort). 2. 1.2 PLC a nd t he IPC and DCS contrast contrast 1, ea ch of the three technologi es of origi ns a nd development requirement s for fast data process ing makes it inve nted the com puter. The me n brought i n terms of hardware there, usi ng a hig h level of standardi zation, ca n use m ore compatibility tool s, is a ri ch s oftware resources , especially t he ne ed for immedia cy in operational systems . So the com put er can effectively control i s used to control and meet its s pee d, on the virtua l model , real-time a nd i n computational re quireme nts. Distri bute d system started wit h a contr ol system for industrial a utomatic i nstrume nt use d to contr ol, whereas now it is succes sfully deve loped int o industrial control computer use d as a central colle ction a nd distri bution system and transiti on of distributed contr ol system in a nalog ue ha ndli ng, l oop control, has beg un t o reflect the use of a huge adva ntage. Thoug h distri bute d system has great adva ntages in l oop regulati on, but only as a means of conti nuous process contr ol. Optimization of PLC is the corr e sponding relay nee ds wa s bor n, its main use i n the w ork order control, early primary is repla ced relay this hulking system, focus ed on the s witch controlli ng the runni ng order of functi ons. Marked by the micr oproces sor i n the early 197 0 of the 20th cent ur y emerged, micr o-el ectronics technol ogy ha s devel ope d rapi dly, people s oon microel ectronics proces sing technology w ill be used i n the Programmable Logi cal Controller (that is

Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. Industrial automati on techn ology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate su bject . Ma nipulator appli cation bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni ence to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the devel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farm land, repeated operations on the high -s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understan d has some usually didn't opport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yihou of design i n the can s ucces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipul ator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut omation te chnol ogy of devel opme nt, Makes me cha nical arm on the Grand stage of ind ustrial aut omation a nd s hine, gradually be came an i ndustrial evaluati on sta ndar ds, a nd its im portance can be see n. Now origi nal roboti c arm spe nt most of mass producti on a nd use on the production line, whi ch is programmed roboti c arm. As the first generation of manipulat or position control s ystems main features, althoug h not back several generati ons t hat ca n dete ct the external e nvironment, but ca n still successf ully com plete like wel ding, painti ng, del ivery as well as for materials simple moveme nts. Se cond generation me cha nical arms are equipped wit h sensors a nd ma nipulators hav e the envir onme nt there is a certain amount of "sense", w hen the mechani cal arm is to use the program as a ba sis . Difference is that t he robot bega nd

PAUSE 暂停,等待用户进行实时指定一点之后执行随后的操作. "" 用于结束选择 E.使用说明: 可以从 AUTOCAD 安装文件夹中, 任复制一个 LISP 程序, 将里面的内容清空, 然后按命令的各种格式书写就是,注意举一反三,最后在 AUTOCAD 中加载(最好在启动组 中也添加,这样每次 CAD 启动时就会自动加载),从而实现利用 LISP 程序增加 AUTOCAD 中的快捷键.另外还注意二点,一是用 LISP 修改的简码优于其它方法修改的简码;二是用上 述的 LISP 程序不但能修改 CAD 中的简码,同样可修改比如天正建筑,3D3S 等以 CAD 为 *台的众多软件的简码。你们一定要举一反三灵活运用,加强一个“悟”字,方可达到“一剑 化万剑,万剑归一剑”的境界,用不了多久,你们就会流畅地穿梭于三维空间中,建什么复 杂模型都可随心所欲,到那时就会感到有点寂寞了,因为您们已经迈入高手行列。 巧借 Excel 在 AutoCAD 中绘曲线 在工程计算时,经常要用 AutoCAD 画出一条曲线,而这条曲线如果是由多个坐标点 连接成的,输入起来就麻烦,而且容易出错。如果利用 EXCEL 应用程序来保存数据,并与 CAD 巧妙地结合起来,就能很容易地画出该曲线。具体方法为: 首先,在 Excel 中输入坐标值。我们将 x 坐标值放入 A 列,y 坐标值放入到 B 列,再将 A 列和 B 列合并成 C 列,由于 AutoCAD 中二维坐标点之间是用逗号隔开的,所以我们在 C2 单元格中输入:"=A2&","&B2",C2 中就出现了一对坐标值。我们用鼠标拖动的方法将 C2 的的公式进行复制,就可以得到一组坐标值。 其次, 选出所需画线的点的坐标值, 如上例中 C 列数据, 将其复制到剪贴板上, 即按 Excel 中的复制按钮来完成此工作。 最后,打开 AutoCAD,在命令行处键入 spline (画曲线命令),出现提示:"Object/:",再 在此位置处点击鼠标右键,弹出菜单,在菜单中选择 Paste 命令,这样在 Excel 中的坐标值 就传送到了 AutoCAD 中,并自动连接成曲线,单击鼠标右键,取消继续画线状态,曲线就 画好了。 # T7 q6 S ~& i, U ]; ~www.jianzhuw.com 通过上面的方法,可以很方便地绘制各种曲线 或折线,并且在 Excel 中很容易地修改并保存坐标值。 老使用者在 CAD 中多重复制总是需要输入 M,如何简化? 5 d+ ~6 s- c: o0 e 可以在 acad.lsp 文件中添加程序实现不必输入 M,方法是: (defun C:CVV () ;0 I0 I. v6 s C) Q5 `建筑论坛(setvar "cmdecho" 0) - C1 X1 J: |+ ^2 x0 O(setq css (ssget)) (command "copy" css "" "m") (setq css nil) (setvar "cmdecho" 1) (prin1) ) 3 [2 _1 F% \, R% Qwww.jianzhuw.com 即输入 CVV 回车,即可实现多重复制。 如何替换找不到的原文字体? 复制要替换的字库为将被替换的字库名,如:打开一幅图,提示未找到字体 jd ,你想用 hztxt.shx 替换它,那么你可以去找 AutoCAD 字体文件夹(font)把里面的 hztxt.shx 复制一份, 重新命名为 jd.shx,然后在把 XX.shx 放到 font 里面,在重新打开此图就可以了。以后如果 你打开的图包含 jd 这样你机子里没有的字体,就再也不会不停的要你找字体替换了。 如何删除顽固图层? 方法 1: 将无用的图层关闭, 全选, COPY 粘贴至一新档中, 那些无用的图层就不会贴过来。 如果曾经在这个不要的图层中定义过块, 又在另一图层中插入了这个块, 那么这个不要的图 层是不能用这种方法删除的。 方法 2: 选择需要留下的图形,然后选择文件菜单->输出->块文件,这样的块档就是选中部 分的图形了,如果这些图形中没有指定的层,这些层也不会被保存在新的图块图形中。 9 w5 V5 G% Y: h# N 方法 3:打开一个 CAD 档,把要删的层先关闭,在图面上只留下你需 要的可见图形,点文件-另存为,确定文件名,在文件类型栏选*.DXF 格式,在弹出的对话

m anipulat or control m ode a nd programmabl e controller s introduction 2.1 S elect dis cus sion with ma nipulator contr ol 2.1 .1 cl assificati on of control relays and dis crete ele ctronic circuit can control old i ndustrial e qui pment, but als o more common. Ma inl y these tw o relatively chea p and you ca n meet the ol d-fas hioned, simple (or simple) i ndustrial equipme nt. So he can see them now, however t hese tw o contr ol mode s (relay and dis crete ele ctronic circuits) are thes e fatal flaws: (1) cannot a dapt to t he complex l ogic control, (2) only for the current proj ect, t he lack of com patibi lity and (3) not reforming the sy stem with e qui pment impr ovements. S pring for t he development of China's modern i ndustrial a utomation technology the s ubsta ntial increase i n the level of industrial aut omation, com pleted t he perfect relay of the com puter too much. In terms of controlling t he computer s howed his t w o great advantage s: (1) each of the hardw are ca n be installe d on one or more micr oproces sors ; (2) the 。 转 好 定 稳 势 形 产 生 安 域 领 行 个 动 推 降 下 继 量 总 保 故 事 上 以 较 制 遏 , 管 监 节 环 等 作 殊 特 和 区 地 ”、 大 一 点 重 “两 化 强 续 持 ; 任 责 体 主 业 企 实 落 面 全 official desig ner of the software writing content control is all a bout . Now in s everal ways in t he context of industrial a utomation ca n often be se en i n three ways : (1) Programmable Logica l Controller (referred to as IPC); (2) Distri bute d Control System (DCS for short), and (3) the Programmable Logi cal Controller (PLC for s hort). 2. 1.2 PLC a nd t he IPC and DCS contrast contrast 1, ea ch of the three technologi es of origi ns a nd development requirement s for fast data process ing makes it inve nted the com puter. The me n brought i n term s of hardware there, usi ng a hig h level of standardi zation, ca n use m ore compatibility tool s, is a ri ch s oftware resources , especia lly t he ne ed for immedia cy in operational systems . So the com puter can effectively control i s used to control and meet its s pee d, on the virtua l model , real-time a nd i n computational re quireme nts. Distri bute d system started wit h a contr ol system for industrial a utomatic i nstrume nt use d to contr ol, whereas now it is succes sfully deve loped int o industrial control computer use d as a central colle ction a nd distri bution system and transiti on of distributed contr ol system in a nalog ue ha ndli ng, l oop control, has beg un t o reflect the use of a huge adva ntage. Thoug h distri bute d system has great adva ntages in l oop regulati on, but only as a means of conti nuous process contr ol. Optimization of PLC is the corre sponding relay nee ds wa s bor n, its main use i n the w ork order control, early primary is repla ced relay this hulking system, focus ed on the s witch controlli ng the runni ng order of functi on s. Marked by the micr oproces sor i n the early 197 0 of the 20th cent ury emerged, micr o-el ectronics technol ogy ha s devel ope d rapi dly, people s oon microel ectronics proces sing technology w ill be used i n the Programm able Logi cal Controller (that is

Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. Industrial automati on technology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate subject . Ma nipulator appli cat ion bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni en ce to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the de vel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farmland, repeated operations on the high-s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understand has some usually didn't o pport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yi hou of design i n the can s ucces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipulator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut omation te chnol ogy of devel opme nt, Makes me cha nical arm on the Grand stage of ind ustrial aut omation a nd s hine, gradually be came an i ndustrial evaluati on sta ndar ds, a nd its im portance can be see n. Now origi nal roboti c arm spe nt most of mass producti on a nd use on the production line, whi ch is programmed roboti c arm. As the first generation of manipulator position control s ystems main features, althoug h not back several generati ons t hat ca n dete ct the external e nvironment, but ca n still successf ully com plete like wel ding, painti ng, del ivery as well as for materials simple moveme nts. Se cond generation me cha nical arms are equipped wit h sensors a nd ma nipulators hav e the envir onme nt there is a certain amount of "sense", w hen the mechani cal arm is to use the progr am as a ba sis . Difference is that t he robot bega nd

窗口中点工具-选项-DXF 选项,再在选择对象处打钩,点确定,接着点保存,就可选择保存 对象了,把可见或要用的图形选上就可以确定保存了,完成后退出这个刚保存的档,再打开 来看看,你会发现你不想要的图层不见了。 - \" T8 i2 h+ Q4 ewww.jianzhuw.com 方法 4:用命令 laytrans,可将需删除的图层影射为 0 层 即可, 这个方法可以删除具有实体对象或被其它块嵌套定义的图层。 , x8 }9 _& }( w5 q7 N6 j 建筑论 AutoCAD 在 XP 操作系统下打印时致命错误怎么办?这跟 AutoCAD 2002 及以*姹臼褂么 印戳记有关。在 2000 版时,增补的打印戳记功能就有很多的 BUG,这个功能在 2002 版本 后就直接做为 AutoCAD 功能。该功能在 98 操作系统中是完全没有问题的,但在有些 XP 系 统中就会出错。所以在 XP 系统中最好不要去开启该功能。如果你已经不幸开启了该功能而 使 AutoCAD 在打印时出现致命错误,解决的方法只能是这样:在 AutoCAD 的根目录下找 到 AcPltStamp.arx 档,把它改为其它名称或删除掉,这样再进行打印就不会再出错了,但也 少了打印戳记的功能,该方法对于 2002 版及 2004 版均有效。 ; l0 g1 p% J/ }" H& v( c* J 中 国建筑网|建筑|设计|建筑企业|房地产|建筑下载|建筑新闻|建筑论 在多行文字(mtext)命令中使用 Word97 编辑文本。 Mtext 多行文本编辑器是 AutoCADR14 中的新增功能,它提供了 Windows 文字处理软件所 具备的接口和工作方式,它甚至可以利用 Word97 的强大功能编辑文本,这一功能可以用如 下方法实现:打开 “Tools” 菜单选 “Preferences” 命令, “Preferences” 对话框弹出后,打开 “Files/TextEditor, Dictionary, andFontFileName/TextEditorApplication/Internal”, 双击“Internal”, 出现“Selectafile”对话框, 接着找到“Winword.exe”应用程序文件, 击“打开”钮, 最后单击“OK” 返回。完成以上设置后,用户如再使用 mtext 命令时系统将自动调用我们熟悉的 Word97 应 用程序,为 AutoCAD 中的文本锦上添花。 AutoCAD 图导入 photoshop 的方法。这已经是一个很古老的问题了,解决的方法就是“虚拟 打印”!下面一步步的来(为方便大家,采取中英文对照,括号里面是英文版) : a、打开“文件(file)”菜单下的“打印机管理器(plottermanager)”。 b、运行“打印机添加向导(Add-A-Plotter Wizard) 。 c、 点击“下一步 (next)”, 在右边的选项中选择“我的计算机 (My Computer)”, 继续“下一步”, 进入“打印机型号(Plotter Model)”选择页面。 7 H' f! j H2 }* e; b0 Dd、在左边的“厂商(Manufacturers)”中选择“光栅文件格式(Raster File Formats)”, 这是我们可以看到在右边的“型号 (Model)”中列出了很多种我们熟悉的图形格式, 我*惯于使用 JPG 格式,选择“独立的 JPEG 编组(Independent JPEG Group JFIF)”,点击“下 一步(next)”,直到完成。这样我们以后就可以将 CAD 图形输出位 JPG 格式了。接下来我 们来看看该如何使用它。 " B, F9 L& B4 e4 \/ |e 、用 CAD 做好一幅图后,我们打开 “ 文件 (file)” 菜单下的 “ 打印 ( plotter...)” 。在打印对话框中,在打印机类型中选择我们刚刚装好的 “Independent JPEG Group JFIF”,在下面的“打印到档(plot to file)”里添上生成的文件名和路径,这个文件就是 一个可以再 photoshop 中编辑的图形了。在页面设置中选择一个我们需要的尺寸,其他的就 和使用真正的打印机方法是一样的。点击打印后,等几秒钟,图形就生成了。 6 h! A3 X6 |% k# e+ C! U 注:系统默认的页面尺寸只有 1280*1600,这个尺寸并不能满足我 们的需要。我们可以在打印机的属性中自定义我们所需要的尺寸。 3 u P( e2 {) R, LEnjoy!补充:如果 cad 是 2004 或更高版本,就不用自己装打印机了,在打印 设备中有一个“PublishToWeb JPG.pc3”的打印机,直接用就行了 f:补充一点,如果你想汇出纯黑色线形记得要在出图的同时把所有颜色的笔号都改为 7 号 色, 这样就可以汇出纯黑色的图了, 记得要在 PS 里把模式改为 RGB, 这样图像会更清晰。 !

m anipulat or control m ode a nd programmabl e controller s introduction 2.1 S elect dis cus sion with ma nipulator contr ol 2.1 .1 cl assificati on of control relays and dis crete ele ctronic circuit can co ntrol old i ndustrial e qui pment, but als o more common. Ma inly these tw o relatively chea p and you ca n meet the ol d-fas hioned, simple (or simple) i ndustrial equipme nt. So he can see them now, however t hese tw o contr ol mode s (relay and dis crete ele ctronic circuits) are thes e fatal flaws: (1) cannot a dapt to t he complex l ogic control, (2) only for the current proj ect, t he lack of com patibi lity and (3) not reforming the sy stem with e qui pment impr ovements. S pring for t he development of China's modern i ndustrial a utomation technology the s ubsta ntial increase i n the level of industrial aut omation, com pleted t he perfect relay of the com put er too much. In terms of controlling t he computer s howed his tw o great advantage s: (1) each of the hardw are ca n be installe d on one or more micr oproces sors ; (2) the 。 转 好 定 稳 势 形 产 生 安 域 领 行 个 动 推 降 下 继 量 总 保 故 事 上 以 较 制 遏 , 管 监 节 环 等 作 殊 特 和 区 地 ”、 大 一 点 重 “两 化 强 续 持 ; 任 责 体 主 业 企 实 落 面 全 official desig ner of the software writing content control is all a bout . Now in s everal ways in t he context of industrial a utomation ca n often be se en i n three ways : (1) Programmable Logica l Controller (referred to as IPC); (2) Distri bute d Control System (DCS for short), and (3) the Programmable Logi cal Controller (PLC for s hort). 2. 1.2 PLC a nd t he IPC and DCS contrast contrast 1, ea ch of the three technologi es of origi ns a nd development requirement s for fast data process ing makes it inve nted the com puter. The me n brought i n terms of hardware there, usi ng a hig h level of standardi zation, ca n use m ore compatibility tool s, is a ri ch s oftware resources , especially t he ne ed for immedia cy in operational systems . So the com put er can effectively control i s used to control and meet its s pee d, on the virtua l model , real-time a nd i n computational re quireme nts. Distri bute d system started wit h a contr ol system for industrial a utomatic i nstrume nt use d to contr ol, whereas now it is succes sfully deve loped int o industrial control computer use d as a central colle ction a nd distri bution system and transiti on of distributed contr ol system in a nalog ue ha ndli ng, l oop control, has beg un t o reflect the use of a huge adva ntage. Thoug h distri bute d system has great adva ntages in l oop regulati on, but only as a means of conti nuous process contr ol. Optimization of PLC is the corr e sponding relay nee ds wa s bor n, its main use i n the w ork order control, early primary is repla ced relay this hulking system, focus ed on the s witch controlli ng the runni ng order of functi ons. Marked by the micr oproces sor i n the early 197 0 of the 20th cent ur y emerged, micr o-el ectronics technol ogy ha s devel ope d rapi dly, people s oon microel ectronics proces sing technology w ill be used i n the Programmable Logi cal Controller (that is

Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. Industrial automati on techn ology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate su bject . Ma nipulator appli cation bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni ence to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the devel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farm land, repeated operations on the high -s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understan d has some usually didn't opport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yihou of design i n the can s ucces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipul ator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut omation te chnol ogy of devel opme nt, Makes me cha nical arm on the Grand stage of ind ustrial aut omation a nd s hine, gradually be came an i ndustrial evaluati on sta ndar ds, a nd its im portance can be see n. Now origi nal roboti c arm spe nt most of mass producti on a nd use on the production line, whi ch is programmed roboti c arm. As the first generation of manipulat or position control s ystems main features, althoug h not back several generati ons t hat ca n dete ct the external e nvironment, but ca n still successf ully com plete like wel ding, painti ng, del ivery as well as for materials simple moveme nts. Se cond generation me cha nical arms are equipped wit h sensors a nd ma nipulators hav e the envir onme nt there is a certain amount of "sense", w hen the mechani cal arm is to use the program as a ba sis . Difference is that t he robot bega nd

q b9 R/ x+ ?, T. k; 修改完 ACAD.PGP 档后,不必重新启动 AUTOCAD 立刻载入刚刚修改过的 ACAD.PGP 檔 的方法。 " m8 _/ N: Z$ `建筑论坛键入 REINIT 命令,钩选 PGP,再确定 解决 AutoCAD2005 不能注册的方法。去掉文件和文件夹的隐藏性。 删除 C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Autodesk\Software Licenses\B.dat 如何调整 AUTOCAD 中绘图区左下方显示坐标的框? 按 F6 键切换。或者将 COORDS 的系统变量修改为 1 或者 2。系统变量为 0 时,是指用定点 设备指定点时更新坐标显示。系统变量为 1 时,是指不断更新坐标显示。系统变量为 2 时, 是指不断更新坐标显示,当需要距离和角度时,显示到上一点的距离和角度。 / n/ a; h; `1 Qwww.jianzhuw.co 如何实现中英文菜单切换使用? 在 AutoCAD 中同时保存中英文两套菜单系统,来回切换是可行的。具体作法是把汉化菜单 档改名为 Pacad.mnu,放在 AutoCAD 安装目录下的\\SUPPORT 子目录中,当然还别忘了将 acad.mnl 复制成 Pacad.mnl,放?*** acad.mnu 同一目录中。在用中文菜单时,用 menu 命令 加载 Pacad;换回英文菜单时就再次使用 menu 命令加载 acad 菜单文件。 如何画曲线? . Z" N7 G# {" C# }0 n8 ?建筑论坛---- 在绘制图样时, 经常遇到画截交线、 相贯线及其他曲线 的问题。 手工绘制很麻烦, 要找特殊点和一定数量一般点, 且连出的曲线误差大。 用 AutoCAD 2000 绘制*面曲线或空间曲线却很容易。 ---- 方法一:用 Pline 命令画 2D 图形上通过特殊点的折线,经 Pedit 命令中 Fit 或 Spline 曲 线拟合,可变成光滑的*面曲线。用 3Dpoly 命令画 3D 图形上通过特殊点的折线,经 Pedit 命令中 Spline 曲线拟合,可变成光滑的空间曲线。 ---- 方法二:用 Solids 命令创建三维基本实体(长方体、圆柱、圆锥、球等) ,再经 Boolean (布尔)组合运算:交、并、差和干涉等获得各种复杂实体,然后利用下拉菜单 View(视 图)/3D Viewpoint(三维视点) ,选择不同视点来产生标准视图,得到曲线的不同视图投影。 7 o' J! I8 ?4 Y' g/ p 建筑论 在 AutoCAD 中采用什么比例绘图好? 最好使用 1∶1 比例画,输出比例可以随便调整。画图比例和输出比例是两个概念,输出时 使用“输出 1 单位=绘图 500 单位”就是按 1/500 比例输出,若“输出 10 单位=绘图 1 单位”就 是放大 10 倍输出。 用 1∶1 比例画图好处很多。 第一、 容易发现错误, 由于按实际尺寸画图, 很容易发现尺寸设置不合理的地方。第二、标注尺寸非常方便,尺寸数字是多少,软件自己 测量,万一画错了,一看尺寸数字就发现了。第三、在各个图之间复制局部图形或者使用块 时,由于都是 1∶1 比例,调整块尺寸方便。第四、由零件图拼成装配图或由装配图拆画零 件图时非常方便。第五、用不着进行烦琐的比例缩小和放大计算,提高工作效率,防止出现 换算过程中可能出现的差错。 如何在 AutoCAD 中用自定义图案来进行填充? AutoCAD 的填充图案都保存在一个名为 acad.pat 的库文件中,其缺省路径为安装目录的 \\Acad2000\\Support 目录下。可以用文本编辑器对该档直接进行编辑,添加自定义图案的语 句;也可以自己创建一个*.Pat 文件,保存在相同目录下,CAD 均可识别。下面我们就以新 创建一个菱形花纹钢板图案库文件为例,来说明 AutoCAD 2000 中自定义图案的方法。 首先,在 CAD 中按国标作出菱形花纹图案,并标注各部分尺寸 参看下面的库档标准格式: *pattern-name [, description] angle, x-origin, y-origin, delta-x, delta-y [, dash-1, dash-2, ...] 第一行为标题行。星号后面紧跟的是图案名称,执行 HATCH 命令选择图案时,将显示该名

m anipulat or control m ode a nd programmabl e controller s introduction 2.1 S elect dis cus sion with ma nipulator contr ol 2.1 .1 cl assificati on of control relays and dis crete ele ctronic circuit can control old i ndustrial e qui pment, but als o more common. Ma inl y these tw o relatively chea p and you ca n meet the ol d-fas hioned, simple (or simple) i ndustrial equipme nt. So he can see them now, however t hese tw o contr ol mode s (relay and dis crete ele ctronic circuits) are thes e fatal flaws: (1) cannot a dapt to t he complex l ogic control, (2) only for the current proj ect, t he lack of com patibi lity and (3) not reforming the sy stem with e qui pment impr ovements. S pring for t he development of China's modern i ndustrial a utomation technology the s ubsta ntial increase i n the level of industrial aut omation, com pleted t he perfect relay of the com puter too much. In terms of controlling t he computer s howed his t w o great advantage s: (1) each of the hardw are ca n be installe d on one or more micr oproces sors ; (2) the 。 转 好 定 稳 势 形 产 生 安 域 领 行 个 动 推 降 下 继 量 总 保 故 事 上 以 较 制 遏 , 管 监 节 环 等 作 殊 特 和 区 地 ”、 大 一 点 重 “两 化 强 续 持 ; 任 责 体 主 业 企 实 落 面 全 official desig ner of the software writing content control is all a bout . Now in s everal ways in t he context of industrial a utomation ca n often be se en i n three ways : (1) Programmable Logica l Controller (referred to as IPC); (2) Distri bute d Control System (DCS for short), and (3) the Programmable Logi cal Controller (PLC for s hort). 2. 1.2 PLC a nd t he IPC and DCS contrast contrast 1, ea ch of the three technologi es of origi ns a nd development requirement s for fast data process ing makes it inve nted the com puter. The me n brought i n term s of hardware there, usi ng a hig h level of standardi zation, ca n use m ore compatibility tool s, is a ri ch s oftware resources , especia lly t he ne ed for immedia cy in operational systems . So the com puter can effectively control i s used to control and meet its s pee d, on the virtua l model , real-time a nd i n computational re quireme nts. Distri bute d system started wit h a contr ol system for industrial a utomatic i nstrume nt use d to contr ol, whereas now it is succes sfully deve loped int o industrial control computer use d as a central colle ction a nd distri bution system and transiti on of distributed contr ol system in a nalog ue ha ndli ng, l oop control, has beg un t o reflect the use of a huge adva ntage. Thoug h distri bute d system has great adva ntages in l oop regulati on, but only as a means of conti nuous process contr ol. Optimization of PLC is the corre sponding relay nee ds wa s bor n, its main use i n the w ork order control, early primary is repla ced relay this hulking system, focus ed on the s witch controlli ng the runni ng order of functi on s. Marked by the micr oproces sor i n the early 197 0 of the 20th cent ury emerged, micr o-el ectronics technol ogy ha s devel ope d rapi dly, people s oon microel ectronics proces sing technology w ill be used i n the Programm able Logi cal Controller (that is

Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. Industrial automati on technology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate subject . Ma nipulator appli cat ion bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni en ce to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the de vel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farmland, repeated operations on the high-s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understand has some usually didn't o pport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yi hou of design i n the can s ucces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipulator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut omation te chnol ogy of devel opme nt, Makes me cha nical arm on the Grand stage of ind ustrial aut omation a nd s hine, gradually be came an i ndustrial evaluati on sta ndar ds, a nd its im portance can be see n. Now origi nal roboti c arm spe nt most of mass producti on a nd use on the production line, whi ch is programmed roboti c arm. As the first generation of manipulator position control s ystems main features, althoug h not back several generati ons t hat ca n dete ct the external e nvironment, but ca n still successf ully com plete like wel ding, painti ng, del ivery as well as for materials simple moveme nts. Se cond generation me cha nical arms are equipped wit h sensors a nd ma nipulators hav e the envir onme nt there is a certain amount of "sense", w hen the mechani cal arm is to use the progr am as a ba sis . Difference is that t he robot bega nd

称。方括号内是图案由 HATCH 命令的“?”选项显示时的可选说明。如果省略说明,则图案 名称后不能有逗号。 第二行为图案的描述行。可以有一行或多行。其含义分别为:直线绘制的角度,填充直线族 中的一条直线所经过的点的 X、 Y 轴坐标, 两填充直线间的位移量, 两填充直线的垂直间距, dash-n 为一条直线的长度参数,可取正负值或为零,取正值表示该长度段为实线,取负值表 示该段为留空,取零则画点。我们可以开始编辑了。打开记事本,书写下如下: *custom, steel plate GB/T3277-1991 68.4667, 0, 0, -9.8646, 25, 30.0213, -6.59 111.5333, 0, 0, 9.8646, 25, 30.0213, -6.59 68.4667, -11.0191, 27.926, -9.8646, 25, 30.0213, -6.59 111.5333, 11.0191, 27.926, 9.8646, 25, 30.0213, -6.59 本例中的四行图案描叙行分别对应图一中的线段 a、b、c、d。对照图文,各项取值应不难 理解。 这里只着重讲叙一下 delta-x 与 delta-y 的取值规则, 为方便理解, 我们如图示设置 UCS 坐标系,确定原点与 X 轴正方向。线段 a、e 在 Y 轴上的垂直间距 25 构成 delta-y,也相当 于 AutoCAD 中的 offset 命令的取值 25;如果线段 e 是由线段 a 经 offset 而来,这时线段 e 同时还相对于线段 a 沿 X 轴负方向移动了 9.8646,这段位移也就是 delta-x。 下面还有几个注意事项: a.图案定义文件的每一行最多可包含 80 个字符。 b.AutoCAD 忽略空行和分号右边的文字。根据这一条,我们可以在文件中添加版权信息、 备注或者是我们想加入的任何内容。 例如: ;Copyright (c) 2000 by everyone. All rights reserved. 最后,将档保存,取名 custom.Pat。注意,文件名必须与图案名相同。" i! o# Y: t7 p# `1 w8 r6 x 建筑论坛到此,相信各位朋友已经掌握了自定义图案的方法。现在你就可以编辑出非常 复杂的图案了.调用库档的方法为:附页为我做的填充图样及档,解压缩放在 \\Acad2000\\Support 目录下。打开 AutoCAD,运行 Hatch 命令,在弹出的 Boundary Hatch 对话框的 Type 栏选中 Custom,单击 Swatch 选项栏,弹出 Hatch Pattern Palette 对话框,选 择 Custom 卷标,指定我们刚创建的 custom.Pat 档,此时右侧出现填充效果的预览,那正是 我们需要的菱形花纹钢板图案。 怎么把图纸用 WORD 打印出来?啊 WORD 打印出来啊 2 _. h6 h3 A* i& } R0 Owww.jianzhuw.comword 里有对象插入,其中一个就是 AutoCAD 图 形, 插入前别忘了在 AutoCAD 里把图形的背景颜色改为白色 (工具-选项-显示-颜色里面改) , 否则打出来图形有填充色,看不见图形。 如何控制实体显示? 以 AutoCAD2000 为例 常用键盘输入三个系统变量控制实体的显示。ISOLINES:缺省时实 体以线框方式显示, 实体上每个曲面以分网格线的形式表述。 分网格线数目由该系统变量控 制,有效值为 0—2047,初始值为 4。分网格线数值越大,实体越易于观察,但是等待显示 时间加长 DISPSILH:该变量控制实体轮廓边的显示,取值 0 或 1,缺省值为 0,不显示轮 廓边,设置为 1,则显示轮廓边。FACETRES:该变数调节经 HIDE(消隐) 、SHADE(着 色) 、RENDER(渲染)后的实体的*滑度,有效值为 0.01—10.0,缺省值为 0.5。其值越大, 显示越光滑,但执行 HIDE、SHADE、RENDER 命令时等待显示时间加长。通常在进行最 终输出时,才增大其值。 2 n5 a6 D) v$ U5 v 怎样测量某个像素的长度? 方法一:用测量单位比例因子为 1 的线性标注或对齐标注。 方法二:用 dist 命令。 方法三:用 list 命令。推荐使用。 ' J, a; |8 \$ k) x! e5 r& V 中国建筑网|建筑|设计|建筑企业| 房地产|建筑下载|建筑新闻|建筑论

m anipulat or control m ode a nd programmabl e controller s introduction 2.1 S elect dis cus sion with ma nipulator contr ol 2.1 .1 cl assificati on of control relays and dis crete ele ctronic circuit can co ntrol old i ndustrial e qui pment, but als o more common. Ma inly these tw o relatively chea p and you ca n meet the ol d-fas hioned, simple (or simple) i ndustrial equipme nt. So he can see them now, however t hese tw o contr ol mode s (relay and dis crete ele ctronic circuits) are thes e fatal flaws: (1) cannot a dapt to t he complex l ogic control, (2) only for the current proj ect, t he lack of com patibi lity and (3) not reforming the sy stem with e qui pment impr ovements. S pring for t he development of China's modern i ndustrial a utomation technology the s ubsta ntial increase i n the level of industrial aut omation, com pleted t he perfect relay of the com put er too much. In terms of controlling t he computer s howed his tw o great advantage s: (1) each of the hardw are ca n be installe d on one or more micr oproces sors ; (2) the 。 转 好 定 稳 势 形 产 生 安 域 领 行 个 动 推 降 下 继 量 总 保 故 事 上 以 较 制 遏 , 管 监 节 环 等 作 殊 特 和 区 地 ”、 大 一 点 重 “两 化 强 续 持 ; 任 责 体 主 业 企 实 落 面 全 official desig ner of the software writing content control is all a bout . Now in s everal ways in t he context of industrial a utomation ca n often be se en i n three ways : (1) Programmable Logica l Controller (referred to as IPC); (2) Distri bute d Control System (DCS for short), and (3) the Programmable Logi cal Controller (PLC for s hort). 2. 1.2 PLC a nd t he IPC and DCS contrast contrast 1, ea ch of the three technologi es of origi ns a nd development requirement s for fast data process ing makes it inve nted the com puter. The me n brought i n terms of hardware there, usi ng a hig h level of standardi zation, ca n use m ore compatibility tool s, is a ri ch s oftware resources , especially t he ne ed for immedia cy in operational systems . So the com put er can effectively control i s used to control and meet its s pee d, on the virtua l model , real-time a nd i n computational re quireme nts. Distri bute d system started wit h a contr ol system for industrial a utomatic i nstrume nt use d to contr ol, whereas now it is succes sfully deve loped int o industrial control computer use d as a central colle ction a nd distri bution system and transiti on of distributed contr ol system in a nalog ue ha ndli ng, l oop control, has beg un t o reflect the use of a huge adva ntage. Thoug h distri bute d system has great adva ntages in l oop regulati on, but only as a means of conti nuous process contr ol. Optimization of PLC is the corr e sponding relay nee ds wa s bor n, its main use i n the w ork order control, early primary is repla ced relay this hulking system, focus ed on the s witch controlli ng the runni ng order of functi ons. Marked by the micr oproces sor i n the early 197 0 of the 20th cent ur y emerged, micr o-el ectronics technol ogy ha s devel ope d rapi dly, people s oon microel ectronics proces sing technology w ill be used i n the Programmable Logi cal Controller (that is

Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. Industrial automati on techn ology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate su bject . Ma nipulator appli cation bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni ence to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the devel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farm land, repeated operations on the high -s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understan d has some usually didn't opport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yihou of design i n the can s ucces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipul ator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut omation te chnol ogy of devel opme nt, Makes me cha nical arm on the Grand stage of ind ustrial aut omation a nd s hine, gradually be came an i ndustrial evaluati on sta ndar ds, a nd its im portance can be see n. Now origi nal roboti c arm spe nt most of mass producti on a nd use on the production line, whi ch is programmed roboti c arm. As the first generation of manipulat or position control s ystems main features, althoug h not back several generati ons t hat ca n dete ct the external e nvironment, but ca n still successf ully com plete like wel ding, painti ng, del ivery as well as for materials simple moveme nts. Se cond generation me cha nical arms are equipped wit h sensors a nd ma nipulators hav e the envir onme nt there is a certain amount of "sense", w hen the mechani cal arm is to use the program as a ba sis . Difference is that t he robot bega nd

怎么提高出图质量 第一章 工作目标篇(最高层面) 我们为什么要画图:-------??? 不管你是用什么软件绘制或表达, 画图时要时时刻刻记住自己的目的是什么?图纸是一种直 观、准确、醒目、易于交流的表达形式。所以我们最后完成的东西一定是能够很好的帮助我 们表达自己的设计思想、表达一个规划师的观点,或者暴露一些我们想给大家展示的问题。 好的计算机绘制的图纸是什么样子的------???鄙人认为:”“醒目、简洁、准确”(请大家 体会一下排位次序)是好的计算机绘制图纸的标准。要让一套图纸保持大体风格统一,每张 又有鲜明的特色。 A3 大小让人 2 米外轻度*视也能看见你要表达的主题内容,A1 大小要让 人在 10 米外灯光不足也能分辨个十之六七,不至于把工业区和居住区搞混淆,也不会把小 学看成加油站。要达到这个目的,需要有一些好的工作方法和*惯来支撑,无论是一个人搞 定一个项目所有图纸还是一个工作小组合作,为了高效、高质量完成图面表达,都需要一些 好的工作框架。 第二章 工作方法篇(战略层面)作为项目负责人,必须作好三件事情:把握设计思路、控 制图纸深度、明确工序分工。如果您是画图仔,碰到了一个疑似神仙大师的项目负责人,那 就有的你改的了。比方说是一个比较简单的控规,象这种情况不要花太多时间在后期 photo 身上。应当以完成 cad 总*面为第一要务,总*面要充分体现*宓纳杓扑枷耄肜*宥喽 交流 cad 的总*面,得到充分肯定后,大家以此为基础分开绘制相应图纸。项目进行到每个 阶段都对应不同的图纸深度要求。假如分为三个阶段:初步方案----初稿----会审稿,画图前 我们会大致估计一下要出哪些图纸,不到会审稿我一般不出 photo(哈哈,让甲方有一个渐入 佳境的感觉,哇,您们的图纸越来越漂漂啦……)。初步方案我只出现状、分析图和总*面, 初稿基本都有,但都是 cad 的,而且不带分图则。会审稿就用 photo 处理一下,带上花花稍 稍的一些东西和分图则。 在大家充分了解总体设计思路的前提下, 画道路和总*面的人的水 *基本决定了整个项目的进度和计算机绘制图纸的质量。项目改动最多的也是道路和总* 面。因此,我们首先有如下的准备工作:由道路或总*面制定标准档(很厉害的标准档哦) : 1、符合 A3 或 A1 长宽比的统一的图框,图框文件中必须命名好字体样式(text style)和标 注样式(dim style),强烈建议所有字体只用宋体,标题黑体!免得别人看见问号,为交流和 打印增添麻烦。 2、统一割好的地形图,251 号颜色。 1 v; @% ^( j9 @9 a* D* s: ~建筑论坛 3、严密的分层 体系! ! ! / D& B/ I4 H& S) f y/ q 建筑论坛友人认为多此一举,我认为这是最关键最重要的最难的! ! 无数次我的大好青春被别人混乱分层的 cad 和 psd 档所白白消耗, 无数次我整理着毫无规律 的电子文件。 下面我简单介绍一下我的尝试:autocad(R14)没有什么图纸能够复杂过总*面, 下面我以控规总*面为例:大致思路:第一规则:cad 的分层顺序以数字开头第一队,以字 母开头的第二队,以汉字开头的按汉语拼音排序第三队。第二规则:图纸里的东西包括以下 内容:字、标注、图框、河流及山体及用地的色块填充以及他们的线框,道路边线、中心线、 规划界限行政边界或其他界限、分析性边界、色块,必须的不能删掉但可以冻住的辅助性线 条。他们必须根据各自用途大致分布在相*的命名区域,名字必须容易选择(比方说二类工 业用地我用 M2,先把鼠标指向长长的复杂的层列表,键盘输入 m 就到啦 M 区了)第三规 则:层的命名规则要简单, 明了, 方便不同专业的人。 大家都能够迅速理解,绝对不会误解。 利用以上规则,我设想了以下的命名方式: a、0 层不允许放任何东西,是做块用的! ; d: P; {' u: Z) ?! eb、有关要求大家一定优先看到的特殊的东西,比如地形图,在前面加 0, 保证这些层在层列表的最上方。dwg 的地形图名字叫做 0map, 假如是外部引用的栅格图像,

m anipulat or control m ode a nd programmabl e controller s introduction 2.1 S elect dis cus sion with ma nipulator contr ol 2.1 .1 cl assificati on of control relays and dis crete ele ctronic circuit can control old i ndustrial e qui pment, but als o more common. Ma inl y these tw o relatively chea p and you ca n meet the ol d-fas hioned, simple (or simple) i ndustrial equipme nt. So he can see them now, however t hese tw o contr ol mode s (relay and dis crete ele ctronic circuits) are thes e fatal flaws: (1) cannot a dapt to t he complex l ogic control, (2) only for the current proj ect, t he lack of com patibi lity and (3) not reforming the sy stem with e qui pment impr ovements. S pring for t he development of China's modern i ndustrial a utomation technology the s ubsta ntial increase i n the level of industrial aut omation, com pleted t he perfect relay of the com puter too much. In terms of controlling t he computer s howed his t w o great advantage s: (1) each of the hardw are ca n be installe d on one or more micr oproces sors ; (2) the 。 转 好 定 稳 势 形 产 生 安 域 领 行 个 动 推 降 下 继 量 总 保 故 事 上 以 较 制 遏 , 管 监 节 环 等 作 殊 特 和 区 地 ”、 大 一 点 重 “两 化 强 续 持 ; 任 责 体 主 业 企 实 落 面 全 official desig ner of the software writing content control is all a bout . Now in s everal ways in t he context of industrial a utomation ca n often be se en i n three ways : (1) Programmable Logica l Controller (referred to as IPC); (2) Distri bute d Control System (DCS for short), and (3) the Programmable Logi cal Controller (PLC for s hort). 2. 1.2 PLC a nd t he IPC and DCS contrast contrast 1, ea ch of the three technologi es of origi ns a nd development requirement s for fast data process ing makes it inve nted the com puter. The me n brought i n term s of hardware there, usi ng a hig h level of standardi zation, ca n use m ore compatibility tool s, is a ri ch s oftware resources , especia lly t he ne ed for immedia cy in operational systems . So the com puter can effectively control i s used to control and meet its s pee d, on the virtua l model , real-time a nd i n computational re quireme nts. Distri bute d system started wit h a contr ol system for industrial a utomatic i nstrume nt use d to contr ol, whereas now it is succes sfully deve loped int o industrial control computer use d as a central colle ction a nd distri bution system and transiti on of distributed contr ol system in a nalog ue ha ndli ng, l oop control, has beg un t o reflect the use of a huge adva ntage. Thoug h distri bute d system has great adva ntages in l oop regulati on, but only as a means of conti nuous process contr ol. Optimization of PLC is the corre sponding relay nee ds wa s bor n, its main use i n the w ork order control, early primary is repla ced relay this hulking system, focus ed on the s witch controlli ng the runni ng order of functi on s. Marked by the micr oproces sor i n the early 197 0 of the 20th cent ury emerged, micr o-el ectronics technol ogy ha s devel ope d rapi dly, people s oon microel ectronics proces sing technology w ill be used i n the Programm able Logi cal Controller (that is

Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. Industrial automati on technology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate subject . Ma nipulator appli cat ion bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni en ce to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the de vel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farmland, repeated operations on the high-s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understand has some usually didn't o pport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yi hou of design i n the can s ucces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipulator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut omation te chnol ogy of devel opme nt, Makes me cha nical arm on the Grand stage of ind ustrial aut omation a nd s hine, gradually be came an i ndustrial evaluati on sta ndar ds, a nd its im portance can be see n. Now origi nal roboti c arm spe nt most of mass producti on a nd use on the production line, whi ch is programmed roboti c arm. As the first generation of manipulator position control s ystems main features, althoug h not back several generati ons t hat ca n dete ct the external e nvironment, but ca n still successf ully com plete like wel ding, painti ng, del ivery as well as for materials simple moveme nts. Se cond generation me cha nical arms are equipped wit h sensors a nd ma nipulators hav e the envir onme nt there is a certain amount of "sense", w hen the mechani cal arm is to use the progr am as a ba sis . Difference is that t he robot bega nd

可以叫做 0image。然后在 0map 层上插地形,在 0image 层上外部引用图像。统一的图框也 可以叫“0 图框”。 6 ^/ }5 x6 L. c 中国建筑网|建筑|设计|建筑企业|房地产|建筑下载|建筑新闻|建筑论文 c、不同 性质用地的填充以规范规定的英文名字开头。填充时一定要勾上 Associative,一定要带线框 (就是在 hatch 时点一下 advanced----勾中 retain boundaries) , 这样计算面积和修改就好改了。 有人把边界和填充分层,徒增大量层,没必要。用过滤器(filter,简写是 fi)最后可以一下把 填充和填充的线框轻易的分开,而且画图又不是每天算面积。比方说:行政办公用地层叫做 "C1 行政",商业金融业用地层叫做“C2 商业”,消防站用地层叫做"U9 消防站",公共停车场 层叫做“S31 停车场”。一般到分类标准的小类绰绰有余了,可以严格的把用地性质分清楚。 本来我以前不带中文的,叫做“C1,C2”后来为了方便其他同事,加了简短的中文屁股。这 样 C 类(公共服务设施)一看就是在一起,U 类(市政基础设施)一看也在一串(U1,U21, U3……)爽啊,选择、开关层灯泡、修改都很方便,不会有遗漏,也不会有多余的东西干 扰你! / T. f% Z# n5 _+ |; c1 Qd、道路边线(红线) 、道路中心线本来作为不是用地的东西,一定要 单独排出来, 不允许和用地混杂在一起。 关键是从专业道路部门拿来的电子文件往往都是命 名为“Rb”(Road boundaries)“Rc”(Road center),哎,我的能量有限,没有办法控制所有的技术 部门,只好照搬不动啦!妥协的弊端就是他们会混在居住用地里面(一类住宅用地是 R11) 。 本来我想把他们归入“线类”,一定要用"X"打头。 1 \( I7 }5 X6 J0 D2 r9 ]' ~建筑论坛 e、线类用“X”打头,因为根据国家规范,用地代号最大的 到仓储用地“W”,为了有序的编排不同的图纸元素,线(谐音 X)的东西排在一起,肯定都 在以 0 打头的地形图和以各自用地代号的用地后面。用地的分隔线我就用层名“X 分隔”,规 划界限我就叫“X 规划界限”,县界我就叫“X 县界”,就……f、最后是字、标注,我在前面 加谐音“Z”,路名我叫“Z 路名”,镇名我叫“Z 镇名”,标注我叫“Z 标注”……以上的分层命名 规则其实也很简单, 但是要大家都认同就未必有那么严密。 实际应用中可根据图纸内容稍加 变通。但主题思想比较明确:统一层名,系统严密,方便选择,大家认识。 4、通用的层颜色一般二类居住 yellow,一类居住 51,中小学 30,商业 red,文化娱乐紫色, 河流 151,市政基础设施基本色 134,停车场 8(暗灰色) ,道路 7(黑色) ,道路中心线 red。 工业 M 颜色比较难讲,同济和哈建背景的人有用蓝色系的,清华、武汉城建和重建工背景 的有的人用褐色系。其实无所谓,主要是图面工业类别(一二三类区分)和所占图面比例的 问题。褐色面积太大容易给别人脏兮兮的感觉,蓝色面积过大(特别是普蓝和深蓝色) ,图 面容易过暗,彩度也容易过高。还有绿地也比较难配,要具体看图面的色块比例啦。 5、出图的设置工作组必须知道图纸打印的尺寸。A3 的最好控制实际最长边 37.2 左右,可 以留出 2 厘米左右的装订线(cad 和 photo 都是) 。不要简单的勾上 scale to fit ,要精确计算 一下固定比例(使 A3 实际图纸最长边 37.2cm) ,X、Y 轴偏移量,图纸出图排版方向都必 须是明确的数字,大家统一。还有至关重要的笔宽设置:先全部选中统统 0.13,地形图所在 的 251 颜色要细点,0.1,7 号是很重要的道路、图框等,要粗点,0.16-0.22 都可以。不过 激光打印机要精细点,打出来比设的要细。喷墨的要比设的稍粗。A1 的图纸也是如此,不 过相应笔宽加粗一些,道路的 7 号可能要到 0.22-0.35 才能有效果,压得住图面。如果是管 线的图纸,要注意道路的 7 号细点,不能抢过表达的主题管线内容。photo 没有上述问题, 但它的黑线道路不黑,而且不在一个讨论层面. * f+ S6 L% W" N3 H$ R' F! A 中国建筑网|建筑|设计|建筑企业|房地产|建筑下载|建筑新闻|建 筑论文第三章 工作*惯(战术层面) , y/ m/ t% y9 ], k 一、在您双击 cad 图示之前…… 2、我稍微整理一下桌子,关闭不相干的计算机的程序,看看笔记本,大致想一下设计思路、

m anipulat or control m ode a nd programmabl e controller s introduction 2.1 S elect dis cus sion with ma nipulator contr ol 2.1 .1 cl assificati on of control relays and dis crete ele ctronic circuit can co ntrol old i ndustrial e qui pment, but als o more common. Ma inly these tw o relatively chea p and you ca n meet the ol d-fas hioned, simple (or simple) i ndustrial equipme nt. So he can see them now, however t hese tw o contr ol mode s (relay and dis crete ele ctronic circuits) are thes e fatal flaws: (1) cannot a dapt to t he complex l ogic control, (2) only for the current proj ect, t he lack of com patibi lity and (3) not reforming the sy stem with e qui pment impr ovements. S pring for t he development of China's modern i ndustrial a utomation technology the s ubsta ntial increase i n the level of industrial aut omation, com pleted t he perfect relay of the com put er too much. In terms of controlling t he computer s howed his tw o great advantage s: (1) each of the hardw are ca n be installe d on one or more micr oproces sors ; (2) the 。 转 好 定 稳 势 形 产 生 安 域 领 行 个 动 推 降 下 继 量 总 保 故 事 上 以 较 制 遏 , 管 监 节 环 等 作 殊 特 和 区 地 ”、 大 一 点 重 “两 化 强 续 持 ; 任 责 体 主 业 企 实 落 面 全 official desig ner of the software writing content control is all a bout . Now in s everal ways in t he context of industrial a utomation ca n often be se en i n three ways : (1) Programmable Logica l Controller (referred to as IPC); (2) Distri bute d Control System (DCS for short), and (3) the Programmable Logi cal Controller (PLC for s hort). 2. 1.2 PLC a nd t he IPC and DCS contrast contrast 1, ea ch of the three technologi es of origi ns a nd development requirement s for fast data process ing makes it inve nted the com puter. The me n brought i n terms of hardware there, usi ng a hig h level of standardi zation, ca n use m ore compatibility tool s, is a ri ch s oftware resources , especially t he ne ed for immedia cy in operational systems . So the com put er can effectively control i s used to control and meet its s pee d, on the virtua l model , real-time a nd i n computational re quireme nts. Distri bute d system started wit h a contr ol system for industrial a utomatic i nstrume nt use d to contr ol, whereas now it is succes sfully deve loped int o industrial control computer use d as a central colle ction a nd distri bution system and transiti on of distributed contr ol system in a nalog ue ha ndli ng, l oop control, has beg un t o reflect the use of a huge adva ntage. Thoug h distri bute d system has great adva ntages in l oop regulati on, but only as a means of conti nuous process contr ol. Optimization of PLC is the corr e sponding relay nee ds wa s bor n, its main use i n the w ork order control, early primary is repla ced relay this hulking system, focus ed on the s witch controlli ng the runni ng order of functi ons. Marked by the micr oproces sor i n the early 197 0 of the 20th cent ur y emerged, micr o-el ectronics technol ogy ha s devel ope d rapi dly, people s oon microel ectronics proces sing technology w ill be used i n the Programmable Logi cal Controller (that is

Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. Industrial automati on techn ology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate su bject . Ma nipulator appli cation bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni ence to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the devel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farm land, repeated operations on the high -s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understan d has some usually didn't opport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yihou of design i n the can s ucces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipul ator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut omation te chnol ogy of devel opme nt, Makes me cha nical arm on the Grand stage of ind ustrial aut omation a nd s hine, gradually be came an i ndustrial evaluati on sta ndar ds, a nd its im portance can be see n. Now origi nal roboti c arm spe nt most of mass producti on a nd use on the production line, whi ch is programmed roboti c arm. As the first generation of manipulat or position control s ystems main features, althoug h not back several generati ons t hat ca n dete ct the external e nvironment, but ca n still successf ully com plete like wel ding, painti ng, del ivery as well as for materials simple moveme nts. Se cond generation me cha nical arms are equipped wit h sensors a nd ma nipulators hav e the envir onme nt there is a certain amount of "sense", w hen the mechani cal arm is to use the program as a ba sis . Difference is that t he robot bega nd

估计一下阶段工作时间和完成目标。画图中碰到的问题记下来。 5 C3 y3 v% G" j; H3 @3、我有两个帮手:cad 的 bounse 和深圳规划院工具,前者在安装 cad 的时候选完全安装"Full"就可以了,少数装了不显示的可以这样:开 cad-Tools-Customize.. menus..Browse..(找到 cad 下的 bonus 下 CADTOOLS 下 ac_bonus.mnu,打开,再 load.),还 有一些 lisp,蛮有用的。在改好存盘时间、整理好目标文件包、文件名后,按照一般的步骤: 开档--分层--画图--修改(包含做块、插入、外部引用等)--整理--打印,每个环节都有一些 需要注意的: Z- n4 j" P. K$ M' }, S 建筑论坛二、规划图纸的几个常见问题 1、分层的*惯偶的分层方法见前面的(一) ,不讲了。分层方法可以不一样,但为了挽救广 大有志有为青少年,偶有必要强调一下,在适当的层上画图是 cad 和 photo 的基本要求和规 则,是软件开发者的精华思想之一,是我们能够讨论问题的底线。怕了吧? O' g/ v) m/ R2、定义样式(style)的*惯字体、标注等需要通过样式(style)来管理,这是 cad 和 office 的另一个核心管理手段。好像没有分层那么明显重要,但如果能够掌握好,文 件一复杂,就知道它的威力了。偶每次老老实实定义好 style,后面一般不会为字体和标注 烦恼。 2 C. o1 z# m5 P. |3 l+ X' q+ H4 M 中国建筑网|建筑|设计|建筑企业|房地产|建筑下载|建筑新闻| 建筑论文 3、0 层做块:使用层插入 L1 a; g7 s. a& S& {6 U 有时候复杂混乱的块是档复杂、 档量变巨的罪魁祸首。想象以下,修改几十幢住宅与重新定义(redefine)块哪个划算?块 还有属性,也蛮好玩的。 4、檔的整理 6 W0 D. a7 }4 p6 U! W6 n 包括清理碎片(purge,简写 pu)和迭放次序。迭放 次序(display order)也是 cad 和 photo 中一等一重要的事情。它从图面上直接表明了偶对图纸 表达内容的理解深度。档绘制修改完成后, 做一下 pu,然后在打印和存盘之前一定要执行 迭放操作 a、色块填充放最底下 b、带宽度的多义线迭上(对于道路,支路最下、上面次干、主干、快速、高速) ) E3 K: s* z$ Y6 ^1 e% e$ Owww.jianzhuw.comc、地形图迭上 + `) b) i$ x1 Cwww.jianzhuw.comd、字、图框、道路、铁路、重要的边界迭最上 ( L- a* g7 X k \中国建筑网|建筑|设计|建筑企业|房地产|建筑下载|建筑新闻|建筑论文 e、 迭放 方法: 依托严密的分层管理, 关掉所有层, 先开色块层, 选中, display order(dr), send to back ; 冻住色块层, 开带宽度的多义线, 选中, copy, 基准点随便, 复制到的点输入@ (原地复制) , 输入 e,输入 p(删掉上次选择)。OK,cad 有个原则,修改操作(Move 之类)不会改变迭放 次序,新建操作(比如 copy)会让新物体(object)迭于上面! ! ! 5、视图的切换 偶以前很喜欢不停的 zoom,zoom,zoom,还喜欢在别人快走到我身边时以 16 速 zoom,偶 尔有 MM 过来我就 52 速。后来我看一下 F2,哎,都是 zoom。效率好低啊!经过观察、学 *、揣摩、试用,偶改用 z--p 和 z--d。因为 zoom--previews 和 zoom-d 能够很好的迅速定位 视图。而偶大部分图纸视图也就几种视图比例搞定,不需要乱 zoom!实在需要,就偶尔 zoom--e 一下,看看全局。但它会引起 REGEN (Regenerating drawing),带地形图你就完蛋 了 。 在标注文字时,标注上下标的方法: (1)上标:编辑文字时,输入 2^,然后选中 2^,点 a/b 按键,即可。 (2)下标:编辑文字时,输入^2,然后选中^2,点 a/b 按键,即可。 (3)上下标:编辑文字时,输入 2^2,然后选中 2^2,点 a/b 按键,即可。 63.选择技巧:

m anipulat or control m ode a nd programmabl e controller s introduction 2.1 S elect dis cus sion with ma nipulator contr ol 2.1 .1 cl assificati on of control relays and dis crete ele ctronic circuit can control old i ndustrial e qui pment, but als o more common. Ma inl y these tw o relatively chea p and you ca n meet the ol d-fas hioned, simple (or simple) i ndustrial equipme nt. So he can see them now, however t hese tw o contr ol mode s (relay and dis crete ele ctronic circuits) are thes e fatal flaws: (1) cannot a dapt to t he complex l ogic control, (2) only for the current proj ect, t he lack of com patibi lity and (3) not reforming the sy stem with e qui pment impr ovements. S pring for t he development of China's modern i ndustrial a utomation technology the s ubsta ntial increase i n the level of industrial aut omation, com pleted t he perfect relay of the com puter too much. In terms of controlling t he computer s howed his t w o great advantage s: (1) each of the hardw are ca n be installe d on one or more micr oproces sors ; (2) the 。 转 好 定 稳 势 形 产 生 安 域 领 行 个 动 推 降 下 继 量 总 保 故 事 上 以 较 制 遏 , 管 监 节 环 等 作 殊 特 和 区 地 ”、 大 一 点 重 “两 化 强 续 持 ; 任 责 体 主 业 企 实 落 面 全 official desig ner of the software writing content control is all a bout . Now in s everal ways in t he context of industrial a utomation ca n often be se en i n three ways : (1) Programmable Logica l Controller (referred to as IPC); (2) Distri bute d Control System (DCS for short), and (3) the Programmable Logi cal Controller (PLC for s hort). 2. 1.2 PLC a nd t he IPC and DCS contrast contrast 1, ea ch of the three technologi es of origi ns a nd development requirement s for fast data process ing makes it inve nted the com puter. The me n brought i n term s of hardware there, usi ng a hig h level of standardi zation, ca n use m ore compatibility tool s, is a ri ch s oftware resources , especia lly t he ne ed for immedia cy in operational systems . So the com puter can effectively control i s used to control and meet its s pee d, on the virtua l model , real-time a nd i n computational re quireme nts. Distri bute d system started wit h a contr ol system for industrial a utomatic i nstrume nt use d to contr ol, whereas now it is succes sfully deve loped int o industrial control computer use d as a central colle ction a nd distri bution system and transiti on of distributed contr ol system in a nalog ue ha ndli ng, l oop control, has beg un t o reflect the use of a huge adva ntage. Thoug h distri bute d system has great adva ntages in l oop regulati on, but only as a means of conti nuous process contr ol. Optimization of PLC is the corre sponding relay nee ds wa s bor n, its main use i n the w ork order control, early primary is repla ced relay this hulking system, focus ed on the s witch controlli ng the runni ng order of functi on s. Marked by the micr oproces sor i n the early 197 0 of the 20th cent ury emerged, micr o-el ectronics technol ogy ha s devel ope d rapi dly, people s oon microel ectronics proces sing technology w ill be used i n the Programm able Logi cal Controller (that is

Manipulator i s now used a s a industria l robots in use , the control obje ctives often appear often i n industrial automati on. Industrial automati on technology has gradually mature d, as mat ure a technology li ne ha s be en ra pid development i n industrial automation as a separate subject . Ma nipulator appli cat ion bega n to filter int o welding, l ogistics, mechani cal processi ng, a nd ot her i ndustries. E spe cially at high or very low tem peratures, full of poisonous gas es, high radiati on case, robot in similar cir cumstances showed great use a lso bring s great conveni en ce to the staff. Precisely be caus e of this robot to get people's attenti on began t o be a high degree of devel opment . La bor rates, working conditi ons, labor inte nsive a spe cts of promoti ng devel opme nt. Both at home a nd a broa d to develop the PLC (programmable l ogic controller) is i n various s pecial cir cumstances a nd under s pe cial conditions set for mechani cal devi ces . Now tur ned on the de vel opme nt of the mi croele ctronics automati c control technology a nd t he rapi d devel opme nt of the trains, the s ucces s of PLC har dware s oftware and simulation control win big and succe ssful development, now conti nue s to develop as a factory a utomation standards . Beca use robots are g ood devel opme nt of the technology makes a g ood optimizati on of productive ca pital, and robot s hows t his uni que a dvantages, such as : has g ood com patibi lity, wi de availa bility, hardwar e is complete, a nd programming that can be mastered in a short time, so i n the context of industrial PLC applications be came ubiquitous. Ma nipulator i n many devel ope d country agriculture a nd i ndustry has bee n applied, such as t he use of mechani cal harve sting large areas of farmland, repeated operations on the high-s peed l ine that use s a robotic arm, a nd s o on. Toda y, the high level of automation combi ned wit h restricti ons on t he mani pulator devel opment level i s slightly low er tha n the inter national. T he de sign is mai nly arm weldi ng machine by PLC Aut omation control. T his of design let desig ners on in school by learn of has a must of cons olidati on, understand has some usually didn't o pport unitie s awarene ss i n worl d range within s ome leadi ng level of knowle dge has has must awarene ss, hope desig ners can i n yi hou of design i n the can s ucces s of usi ng in this de sign i n the pr ocee ds of experience 1. 2 manipulator i n bot h at home and abroa d of resear ch pr ofile aut omation me cha nical arm rese arch began Y u 20th cent ury medium -term, after years with with com puter and aut om



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